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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (93):
1

The development of cell theory was based upon Hooke's microscopic observations similar to those in the accompanying image. Which of the following statements on cell theory is false?

A. All cells come from preexisting cells.
B. Most of the chemical reactions of life occur within cells.
C. All cells are similar in chemical composition.
D. Complete sets of genetic information are replicated and passed on during cell division.
E. Cells are formed by the self-assembly of nonliving materials.

Q image thumb

E

2

These two images show the evolutionary diversity of leaf structure in a tree. Which of the following terms describes the traits that enhance an organism's chance of survival and reproduction in a given environment?

A. Natural selection
B. Adaptation
C. Species
D. Evolution
E. Ecology

B

3

Which of the following statements about the language of genetics is false?

A. The genome is the sum of all genetic material.
B. DNA is composed of nucleotides.
C. Genes contain the information required to make a protein.
D. Mutations describe changes in the nucleotide sequence of a gene that can affect the protein coded for by that gene.
E. Mutations are always deleterious.

Q image thumb

E

4

If you arranged the biological levels listed below into a hierarchy, from smallest (least inclusive) at the top to largest (most inclusive) at bottom, which level would be found immediately above the level pictured here?

A. Biosphere
B. Organism
C. Molecule
D. Cell
E. Population

Q image thumb

B

5

The fossil shown here provides evidence of relatedness of past species. Which of the following statements about the origins of life is false?

A. Relatedness of fossils is determined by similarities and differences in their anatomy.
B. The atmosphere of the early earth provided the environment from which life formed.
C. Two species with a recent common ancestor are likely to be very different from one another.
D. The formation of fat like molecules was an important step in the development of living organisms.
E. Prokaryotes are the most primitive organisms.

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C

6

A modern prokaryote that likely resembles a prokaryotic ancestor is shown here. Which of the following statements regarding eukaryotes is false?

A. Early eukaryotes evolved from the first predators.
B. Some eukaryotic cells can perform photosynthesis.
C. Eukaryotic cells contain specialized, membrane-enclosed compartments (organelles).
D. All eukaryotic organisms are multicellular.
E. Eukaryotic cells contain their genetic material inside a nucleus.

Q image thumb

D

7

The division of all living organisms into the three major domains (Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya; diagram shown here) is based upon

A. direct fossil evidence from each group.
B. the existence of a common ancestor.
C. recent advances in our ability to obtain and analyze molecular evidence from existing species.
D. visible differences between organisms found in each of the three domains.
E. the occurrence of similar structures.

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C

8

You observe that many of the frogs in the pond near your house have died; their bodies are lying in the grass at the pond's edge. Based on this observation, you begin to wonder why this is the case. You propose that there is likely a chemical in the pond that is responsible for the deaths. Your proposal would be considered analogous to which step in the hypothesis–prediction approach?

A. Making observations
B. Asking questions
C. Forming a hypothesis
D. Making predictions
E. Testing predictions

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C

9

Consider the method of investigation depicted here. Which of the following statements regarding this type of investigation is false?

A. This type of investigation uses the “comparative method” of investigation.
B. This type of investigation depends on collected data for comparing with predicted patterns.
C. This type of investigation can be used when controlling a particular variable can be difficult.
D. This type of investigation could lead to a rejection of the original hypothesis.
E. This type of investigation alleviates the need for the formation of a hypothesis.

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E

10

It was believed that imposing strict fishing limits on the North Atlantic Ocean west of the line shown in this figure would protect the western-breeding population from becoming endangered. Based on the data shown in the figure, what do the tracking results show?

A. The experimental hypothesis was flawed and the scientists need to redo the study.
B. The data was improperly gathered and should be discarded.
C. The survey and tracking methods did not work correctly.
D. The policy will not achieve the desired results because the populations mix.
E. Efforts to protect populations by establishing fishing limits are going to fail.

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D

11

Why do Arctic ground squirrels eat?

A. To expend energy in chewing and digesting the seed it is holding
B. To acquire energy from the process of chewing
C. To acquire essential nutrients its cells need
D. To store energy for a period when food is scarce
E. To replenish its body fat reserves

C

12

Which of the following is not explained by the theory of evolution?

A. Where and how the first cells developed
B. Why there are so many different types of organisms
C. Why some organisms are now extinct
D. How a species changes over time
E. Why all living things have the same nucleotides in their genetic code

A

13

From the graph, you observe that the higher atrazine concentration does not result in a higher rate of abnormality occurrence. You therefore know that

A. high levels of atrazine are not as dangerous to amphibians as low levels of atrazine.
B. a dosage of 15 ppb would cause a rate of abnormalities between those seen in the groups exposed to 0.1 and 25 ppb.
C. the effect is not proportional to exposure.
D. atrazine is only hazardous in a natural ecosystem, where it is naturally diluted in the waterways.
E. atrazine usage should be banned.

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C

14

Plants show remarkable adaptations to their environments, even though they were derived from a common ancestor. Such diversity of plants arose by

A. reproduction.
B. inheritance of acquired traits.
C. changes in rates of photosynthesis.
D. genetic variability only.
E. evolution and natural selection.

E

15

The organisms that produced the oxygen gas in Earth's atmosphere in ancient times were

A. heterotrophic eukaryotes.
B. autotrophic eukaryotes.
C. heterotrophic prokaryotes.
D. autotrophic prokaryotes.
E. completely unlike modern organisms.

D

16

In the scientific method, a hypothesis

A. is formulated by deductive logic.
B. is formulated solely by speculation.
C. is the basis for making predictions.
D. is a final answer to a question.
E. does not have to be testable.

C

17

Eukaryotes resemble prokaryotes in that both

A. are multicellular.
B. contain specialized cells.
C. have plasma membranes.
D. contain nuclei.
E. have organelles.

C

18

The basic structural and physiological unit of all living organisms is the

A. aggregate.
B. organelle.
C. organism.
D. membrane.
E. cell.

E

19

In a multicellular organism, different kinds of cells

A. randomly express different parts of the same genome.
B. contain different portions of the organism's genome.
C. have different numbers of DNA molecules.
D. have different DNA sequences (different order of nucleotides).
E. regulate the expression of the same genome.

E

20

Oxygen gas (O2) in Earth's early atmosphere

A. allowed the evolution of anoxic metabolism.
B. increased damage to organisms by allowing more ultraviolet light in.
C. depleted ozone in the atmosphere.
D. was not toxic to most prokaryotes.
E. allowed organisms to move from the sea to land.

E

21

A seed of a plant is

A. alive.
B. unicellular.
C. sensitive to dryness.
D. always extracting energy from its environment.
E. devoid of nucleic acids.

A

22

Oceans were a good environment for early organisms because they

A. shielded organisms from ultraviolet light.
B. were rich in oxygen.
C. shielded organisms from visible light.
D. obviated the need for a cell membrane.
E. contained ozone.

A

23

Viruses

A. can reproduce on their own.
B. are cellular.
C. can extract energy from their environment.
D. can mutate.
E. can synthesize DNA or RNA on their own.

D

24

Yeasts can be used to study human cancer because yeasts and humans

A. have many genes in common for cellular functions.
B. are both prokaryotes.
C. have exactly the same genome.
D. have the same number of chromosomes.
E. None of the above; yeast cannot be used to study human cancer.

A

25

The main purpose of any single experiment is to

A. obtain accurate quantitative measurements.
B. prove unambiguously that a particular hypothesis is correct.
C. avoid comparative analysis.
D. answer as many key questions as possible.
E. test a prediction that is based on a hypothesis.

E

26

A key point in Darwin's explanation of evolution is that

A. the biological structures most likely to be inherited are those that have become best suited to the environment through constant use.
B. all mutations that occur are those that will help future generations better fit into their environments.
C. any trait that confers even a small increase in the probability that its possessor will survive and reproduce will be strongly favored and will spread through the population.
D. genes change in order to help organisms cope with problems encountered within their environments.
E. extinction is nature's way of weeding out undeserving organisms.

C

27

In terms of increasing complexity, the order of parts of a multicellular animal is

A. cell, macromolecule, tissue, organ, organ system.
B. molecule, tissue, cell, organ, organ system.
C. molecule, cell, tissue, organ, organ system.
D. tissue, cell, molecule, organ system, organ.
E. tissue, molecule, cell, organ, organ system.

C

28

Genomes are

A. the genetic information shared among all living cells.
B. usually made of RNA.
C. only found in animal and plant cells.
D. the sum of genetic information in a cell.
E. made of proteins.

D

29

Modern cell theory states that

A. cells are the building blocks of some organisms.
B. viruses are cellular.
C. metabolism (the chemical reactions of life) occurs mostly outside cells.
D. all cells are derived from preexisting cells.
E. the chemical composition of cells varies widely from cell to cell.

D

30

When applying biology to public policy,

A. there are no ethical issues involved.
B. the correct course of action is always evident.
C. the economic issues of a policy are not considered.
D. the recommendations of scientists are always followed.
E. several countries may be involved.

E

31

Which of the following is not a characteristic of living organisms?

A. Regulate their internal environment
B. Use genetic information to reproduce themselves
C. Ability to produce biological molecules
D. Create their own energy by cellular metabolism
E. Are descendants of a single-celled ancestor

D

32

19. A population differs from a community in that a community

A. is synonymous with an ecosystem.
B. is a group of the same species that interact with each other.
C. includes the abiotic environment.
D. consists of just one species.
E. consists of many species.

E

33

Which one of the processes below is not dependent on interactions of plants with other organisms (including other plants)?

A. Competing for water
B. Dispersing seeds
C. Obtaining nutrients
D. Regulating the internal environment
E. Producing fertile seeds

D

34

nucleotide

nucleic acid monomer

35

nucleotide
(components)

  1. pentose sugar
  2. phosphate group
  3. nitrogen-containing base

36

domain

one of the three monophyletic branches of life

37

three domains of life

Bacteria
Archaea
Eukarya

38

model system

biological model/study of one species that can be applied to other species

39

controlled experiment

experiment divided into groups to examine effect of manipulating an independent variable; one group remains untreated as a reference

40

bacteria

unicellular prokarytoes possessing distinctive ribosomes and initiator tRNA, generally containing peptidoglycan in cell wall

41

archaeans

unicellular prokaryotes lacking peptidoglycan in cell wall; possess distinctive membrane lipids

42

genome

full DNA sequence for a particular individual or organism

43

photosynthesis (ch 1)

metabolic process in plants that uses light energy in the synthesizing of ATP and glucose

44

metabolism

the sum of chemical reactions occurring in an organism

45

adaptation

structure, process, or behavior that increases an organism's probability of surviving and reproducing

46

comparative experiment

experimental design in which data and observations from unmanipulated groups are compared

47

eukaryotes

organisms containing cells having nuclei (and often, organelles)

48

binomial

nomenclature system as shown by (genus, species)

49

scientific method

process of maknig observations, posing hypotheses, and conducting experiments to test hypotheses to increase biological knowledge

50

null hypothesis

The assertion that an effect proposed by its companion hypothesis does not in fact exist.

51

organelle

membrane-enclosed structure found within a eukaryotic cell

52

gene

portion of the genome that is "code" for a specific trait; a unit of heredity

53

protein (ch 1)

polymer consisting of amino acids

54

hypothesis

tentative proposal that has the possibility of being refuted

55

evolution

gradual change process in which species (or organisms) have changed from generation to generation to increase their chances of survival

56

DNA
(un-abbreviate)

deoxyribonucleic acid

57

DNA

fundamental genetic material of all living organisms

58

cell theory

  1. cells are basic structural & physiological units of all living organisms
  2. all cells come from preexisting cells

59

natural selection

contribution by various genetic types of offspring to the next generation to increase survivability

60

biology

study of living things

61

species

a group of organisms that possess the capability of interbreeding with each other; the basic unit of taxonomic classification

62

endosymbiosis

two species living together, with one living inside the body or the cells of the other

63

prokaryotes

cellular organisms that do not contain their genetic material within a nucleus

64

nucleic acid monomer

nucleotide

65

  1. pentose sugar
  2. phosphate group
  3. nitrogen-containing base

nucleotide
(components)

66

one of the three monophyletic branches of life

domain

67

Bacteria
Archaea
Eukarya

three domains of life

68

biological model/study of one species that can be applied to other species

model system

69

experiment divided into groups to examine effect of manipulating an independent variable; one group remains untreated as a reference

controlled experiment

70

unicellular prokarytoes possessing distinctive ribosomes and initiator tRNA, generally containing peptidoglycan in cell wall

bacteria

71

unicellular prokaryotes lacking peptidoglycan in cell wall; possess distinctive membrane lipids

archaeans

72

full DNA sequence for a particular individual or organism

genome

73

metabolic process in plants that uses light energy in the synthesizing of ATP and glucose

photosynthesis (ch 1)

74

the sum of chemical reactions occurring in an organism

metabolism

75

structure, process, or behavior that increases an organism's probability of surviving and reproducing

adaptation

76

experimental design in which data and observations from unmanipulated groups are compared

comparative experiment

77

organisms containing cells having nuclei (and often, organelles)

eukaryotes

78

nomenclature system as shown by (genus, species)

binomial

79

process of maknig observations, posing hypotheses, and conducting experiments to test hypotheses to increase biological knowledge

scientific method

80

The assertion that an effect proposed by its companion hypothesis does not in fact exist.

null hypothesis

81

membrane-enclosed structure found within a eukaryotic cell

organelle

82

portion of the genome that is "code" for a specific trait; a unit of heredity

gene

83

polymer consisting of amino acids

protein (ch 1)

84

tentative proposal that has the possibility of being refuted

hypothesis

85

gradual change process in which species (or organisms) have changed from generation to generation to increase their chances of survival

evolution

86

deoxyribonucleic acid

DNA
(un-abbreviate)

87

fundamental genetic material of all living organisms

DNA

88

  1. cells are basic structural & physiological units of all living organisms
  2. all cells come from preexisting cells

cell theory

89

contribution by various genetic types of offspring to the next generation to increase survivability

natural selection

90

study of living things

biology

91

a group of organisms that possess the capability of interbreeding with each other; the basic unit of taxonomic classification

species

92

two species living together, with one living inside the body or the cells of the other

endosymbiosis

93

cellular organisms that do not contain their genetic material within a nucleus

prokaryotes