Chapter 1: A Brief History of Microbiology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1: A Brief History of Microbiology Deck (37):
1

What type of Protozoan locomotion variant has extensions of a cell that are fewer, longer, and more whiplike than cilia?

Flagella

2

Name the categories Leeuwenhoeks organisms were grouped into.

Bacteria, archaea, fungi, Protozoa, algae, small multicellular animals

3

Which philosopher's experiments lead to the development of pasteurization as well as the field of industrial microbiology?

pasteur

4

How can fungi be classified?

Eukaryotic Obtain food from other organisms Possess cell walls Include mold and yeasts

5

What is the name of this locomotive protozoan structure?

Q image thumb

Pseudopod

6

What are archaeal cell walls composed of?

Polymers other than peptidoglycan

7

Who created simple microscopes?

Antoni Van Leeuwenhoek

8

Which philosopher determined cells belonged to bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes?

Woese

9

What kind of system did Carolus Linnaeus develop?

Taxonomic system.

10

Protozoa have how many cells? They are classified as prokaryotes or eukaryotes?

Single celled eukaryotes

11

What type of Protozoan locomotion variant has cell extensions that flow in the direction of travel?

Pseudopods

12

What is the name of this locomotive protozoan structure?

Q image thumb

Cilia

13

The study of the body's defenses against specific pathogens is called what?

Immunology

14

What type of Protozoan locomotion variant has numerous protrusions that propel organisms through environment?

Cilia

15

Which philosopher developed the germ theory of disease?

Pasteur

16

Which philosopher studied causative agents of disease?

Robert Koch

17

How can yeasts be classified?

Unicellular Reproduce Asexually by budding Some produce sexual spores

18

How are protozoa similar to animals?

In nutrient needs and cellular structure.

19

Name Koch's postulates.

Suspected causative agent must be found in every case of the disease and be absent from healthy hosts. Agent must be isolated and grown outside the host. When agent is introduced into a healthy, susceptible host, the host must get the disease. Same agent must be found in the diseased experimental host.

20

Which philosophers used microbes as model systems for biochemical reactions?

Kluyver and Van Niel

21

How do protozoa reproduce?

Mostly asexual and sexual reproduction

22

What is molecular biology?

Explanation of cell function at the molecular level.

23

What did Buchner's experiments conclude in regards to fermentation? What field did this lead to?

Demonstrated fermentation does not require living cells. The field of Biochemistry.

24

How do bacteria and archaea reproduce?

Asexually

25

Which microbe is unicellular or multi-cellular, photosynthetic, has simple reproductive structures, and categorized on the basis of pigmentation and composition of cell wall?

Algae

26

Which philosopher proposed living things can arise from nonliving matter. What is this concept also known as?

Aristotle, spontaneous generation

27

Fungi, Protozoa,Algae,and small multicellular animals are based in one microorganism category?

Eukaryotic

28

Most protozoa are capable of locomotion by what 3 things?

Pseudopods Cilia Flagella

29

What did the taxonomic system do?

Named plants, animals, and grouped similar organisms together.

30

Describe bacteria cell walls. What do they contain? What do some lack?

Contain peptidoglycan Some Lack cell walls

31

How are bacteria and archaea classified?

•Unicellular and lack nuclei •Smaller than eukaryotes •Found where there is sufficient moisture; some isolated from extreme environments

32

Which philosophers established that gene activity is related to protein function?

Beadle and Tatum

33

Which philosopher concluded that spontaneous generation does not occur?

Spallanzani

34

How do protozoa live?

Freely in water, some live in animal hosts

35

How can molds be classified?

Multicellular Grow as long filaments Reproduce by sexual and asexual spores

36

What is recombinant DNA technology?

When genes in microbes, plants, and animals are manipulated for practical applications.

37

What is the name of this locomotive protozoan structure?

Q image thumb

Flagellum