Flashcards in Chapter 1 & 2 Test Deck (55):
What is a scientist?
Someone who uses the processes of science to find answers about how and why work in the world and observable universe
What is science?
Body of knowledge and method to gain knowledge about the observable universe
Why is the ocean important to humans?
World climate patterns
The ocean supplies natural resources, such as oil
How much of the ocean have humans actually explored?
All of the surface, but little of what's underneath (5%)
List the 4 branches of oceanography
Describe biological oceanography
Studies diversity in the ocean, how life influences Earth systems, and ocean's role as a habitat
Describe chemical oceanography
Studies chemistry of seawater
Describe physical oceanography
Studies ocean's influence on weather, climate, water movements
Describe geological oceanography
Studies geology of the ocean
Why was true exploration of the ocean not possible until about five decades ago?
The technology wasn't good enough to allow it
Name some professions that draw on marine science
Politicians, civil engineers, marine architects, and astronauts
What is marine science?
Process of discovering facts and processes that explain the ocean, its life forms, and its interaction with other Earth systems
What is technology?
Material system that produces intended results
What is the first step of the scientific method?
Identify a problem/ask a question
What is this question based on?
What are the two forms of questions?
1) ask what process led to a set of facts
2)ask what set of facts you would observe if a process took place
What is the second step of the scientific method?
Make a hypothesis
What is required of a hypothesis?
Has to be testable
What's the difference between inductive and deductive reasoning?
-inductive: proposes how something happens
-deductive:proposes what would be observed if something happened
What is the third step of the scientific method?
Test the hypothesis
What is an experiment?
Objective test of hypothesis with observable results
What is data?
Set of facts derived from direct observation
What is the fourth step of the scientific method?
What is the fifth step in the scientific method?
Why is reporting your results so important?
Allows other scientists to confirm and replicate your work
What are the 4 stages of history of marine science?
1) Ancient uses and explorations
2) The Middle Ages
3) European voyages of discovery
4) Birth/ growth of modern marine sciences
What are the 3 reasons early civilizations interacted with the ocean?
1) food gathering
2) trade (economics)
3) discovery of new lands
When and by who was the earliest recorded voyage?
3200 BC by Egyptian Pharaoh Snefru
What did the Phoenicians do?
Established first trade routes thorough out the Mediterranean and as far as Great Britain
What were senses used by ancient explorers?
Sight, smell, hearing
Crossed thousands of miles of open ocean in dugout canoes, colonizing the islands of the South Pacific
Discovered Iceland, Greenland, and Newfoundland, where Leif erikkson actually landed in North America
We're responsible for inventing magnetic compass around 1125. Central rudders and watertight compartments allowed them to take long voyages
What was the purpose of the Christopher Columbus voyages?
Find a route to Asia
Where did Christopher Columbus actually land?
A Caribbean island
What did Amerigo Vespucci do?
Explored east coast of South America and mouth of Amazon river
-credited with recognizing South American as a new continent
-America is named after him
-commanded the first expedition to sail around the world
-perished in Philippines in a fight with islanders
First expeditions devoted to methodical, scientific oceanography
Geographic discoveries of cook's expeditions
Discovered the Hawaiian islands, South Pacific island
What did the chronometer do?
Allowed sailors to determine their exact position out of sight of land by allowing them to keep time
Proved existence of Antarctica
Published and produced detailed works of sea navigation and his journeys
Darwin and H.M.S. Beagle
-Observations led him to propose natural selection and theory of evolution
-proposed that coral reefs grow upward in shallow warm water
Accomplishments of the challenger expedition
1) took first soundings deeper than 4,000 meters
2)captured biological samples in midwater and along the bottom with towed device
3)discovered marine organisms in deepest parts of ocean
-used echo sounding to map the Atlantic sea floor and also discovered global patterns of ocean water circulation, nutrient dispersal, plankton growth
First ship specifically designed and built for ocean studies
Depths of Atlantic, pacific, Indian Ocean were measured
-oct 1951: Mariana Trench (Challenger Deep) was located and mapped
Steel ball with a window
-allowed first deep sea visits, raised/lowered by a "mother ship"
(Trieste) descended to bottom of challenger deep
-sphere attached to large float and raised/lowered with ballast and a liquid buoyant
Introduced first practical scuba gear
Remotely Operated Vehicles
-unmanned sub with propellers
Autonomous Underwater Vehicles
-untethered, with own power source
-piloted by onboard computer
Uses low frequency radio transmitters to determine location and speed of receiver
Global climate, sea surface temperature, ocean currents, algal blooms, pollution, and many other phenomena are tracked by satellites