Chapter 1 & 2 Test Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1 & 2 Test Deck (55):
1

What is a scientist?

Someone who uses the processes of science to find answers about how and why work in the world and observable universe

2

What is science?

Body of knowledge and method to gain knowledge about the observable universe

3

Why is the ocean important to humans?

World climate patterns
Weather
The ocean supplies natural resources, such as oil

4

How much of the ocean have humans actually explored?

All of the surface, but little of what's underneath (5%)

5

List the 4 branches of oceanography

Biological
Chemical
Physical
Geological

6

Describe biological oceanography

Studies diversity in the ocean, how life influences Earth systems, and ocean's role as a habitat

7

Describe chemical oceanography

Studies chemistry of seawater

8

Describe physical oceanography

Studies ocean's influence on weather, climate, water movements

9

Describe geological oceanography

Studies geology of the ocean

10

Why was true exploration of the ocean not possible until about five decades ago?

The technology wasn't good enough to allow it

11

Name some professions that draw on marine science

Politicians, civil engineers, marine architects, and astronauts

12

What is marine science?

Process of discovering facts and processes that explain the ocean, its life forms, and its interaction with other Earth systems

13

What is technology?

Material system that produces intended results

14

What is the first step of the scientific method?

Identify a problem/ask a question

15

What is this question based on?

Observations

16

What are the two forms of questions?

1) ask what process led to a set of facts
2)ask what set of facts you would observe if a process took place

17

What is the second step of the scientific method?

Make a hypothesis

18

What is required of a hypothesis?

Has to be testable

19

What's the difference between inductive and deductive reasoning?

-inductive: proposes how something happens
-deductive:proposes what would be observed if something happened

20

What is the third step of the scientific method?

Test the hypothesis

21

What is an experiment?

Objective test of hypothesis with observable results

22

What is data?

Set of facts derived from direct observation

23

What is the fourth step of the scientific method?

Analyze results

24

What is the fifth step in the scientific method?

Report results

25

Why is reporting your results so important?

Allows other scientists to confirm and replicate your work

26

What are the 4 stages of history of marine science?

1) Ancient uses and explorations
2) The Middle Ages
3) European voyages of discovery
4) Birth/ growth of modern marine sciences

27

What are the 3 reasons early civilizations interacted with the ocean?

1) food gathering
2) trade (economics)
3) discovery of new lands

28

When and by who was the earliest recorded voyage?

3200 BC by Egyptian Pharaoh Snefru

29

What did the Phoenicians do?

Established first trade routes thorough out the Mediterranean and as far as Great Britain

30

What were senses used by ancient explorers?

Sight, smell, hearing

31

The Polynesians

Crossed thousands of miles of open ocean in dugout canoes, colonizing the islands of the South Pacific

32

The Vikings

Discovered Iceland, Greenland, and Newfoundland, where Leif erikkson actually landed in North America

33

The Chinese

We're responsible for inventing magnetic compass around 1125. Central rudders and watertight compartments allowed them to take long voyages

34

What was the purpose of the Christopher Columbus voyages?

Find a route to Asia

35

Where did Christopher Columbus actually land?

A Caribbean island

36

What did Amerigo Vespucci do?

Explored east coast of South America and mouth of Amazon river
-credited with recognizing South American as a new continent
-America is named after him

37

Ferdinand Magellan

-commanded the first expedition to sail around the world
-perished in Philippines in a fight with islanders

38

Cook's expeditions

First expeditions devoted to methodical, scientific oceanography

39

Geographic discoveries of cook's expeditions

Discovered the Hawaiian islands, South Pacific island

40

What did the chronometer do?

Allowed sailors to determine their exact position out of sight of land by allowing them to keep time

41

Wilkes expedition

Proved existence of Antarctica

42

Matthew Maury

Published and produced detailed works of sea navigation and his journeys

43

Darwin and H.M.S. Beagle

-Observations led him to propose natural selection and theory of evolution
-proposed that coral reefs grow upward in shallow warm water

44

Accomplishments of the challenger expedition

1) took first soundings deeper than 4,000 meters
2)captured biological samples in midwater and along the bottom with towed device
3)discovered marine organisms in deepest parts of ocean

45

The meteor

-used echo sounding to map the Atlantic sea floor and also discovered global patterns of ocean water circulation, nutrient dispersal, plankton growth

46

The Atlantis

First ship specifically designed and built for ocean studies

47

Challenger II

Depths of Atlantic, pacific, Indian Ocean were measured
-oct 1951: Mariana Trench (Challenger Deep) was located and mapped

48

Bathysphere

Steel ball with a window
-allowed first deep sea visits, raised/lowered by a "mother ship"

49

Bathyscaphes

(Trieste) descended to bottom of challenger deep
-sphere attached to large float and raised/lowered with ballast and a liquid buoyant

50

Jacques Cousteau

Introduced first practical scuba gear

51

ROVs

Remotely Operated Vehicles
-unmanned sub with propellers

52

AUVs

Autonomous Underwater Vehicles
-untethered, with own power source
-piloted by onboard computer

53

LORAN

Uses low frequency radio transmitters to determine location and speed of receiver

54

Satellites

Global climate, sea surface temperature, ocean currents, algal blooms, pollution, and many other phenomena are tracked by satellites

55

Eratosthenes

Calculated circumference of earth and invented first lat/long system