Chapter 1: An Intro to Basic Principles (Hill) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1: An Intro to Basic Principles (Hill) Deck (51):
1

Main nutrients *

-Water
-Protein, amino acids, or other N compounds
-Fat/fatty acids/lipids
-minerals
-vitamins

2

fat soluble vitamins *

A,D,E,K

3

water soluble vitamins *

B and C

4

what is AAVN/ACVN iterative approach to feeding "in the face of the unknown"? *

try to assess what to feed, feed it, and hopefully it leads to success:

5

AAVN/ACVN Nutritional Plan steps (5) *

FARMS
1) formula
2) assess (history, physical)
3) route
4) monitor (BCS, blood counts, etc.)
5) slow changes

6

essential nutrient **

a nutrient that can't be synthesized in adequate quantities in a normal animal and must be provided in the diet

7

conditionally essential nutrient **

nutrient that is synthesized in adequate quantities by a normal animal but not during a dz or a physiological condition or life-stage

8

balanced diet for a normal animal **

provides quantities of all essential nutrients when consumed in sufficient quantities to maintain normal body weight/growth

9

balanced diet for an animal with dz **

provides adequate quantities of all essential AND conditionally essential nutrients when the diet is consumed in sufficient quantities to maintain normal body weight or growth

10

nutrient can be 1 of 3 things depending on its dose *

deficient, adequate, or toxic

11

physiological vs. pharmacological dose *

phys: provides adequate nutrition for a normal animal
pharm: a higher dose that modifies the response in a sick patient

12

have the terms "low" and "high" been defined? *

NO. Def. varies by company

13

Steps of problem-oriented vet. med *

1) history
2) PE
3) problem list
4) differential diagnosis (most common at top, look for dz that explains all the signs)
5) plan
6) treat
7) monitor

14

signalment = *

age, sex/neutered, breed

15

how much percentage of change in weight for each point change in BCS? *

10-15% in dogs, 10% in cats

16

5/9 BCS *

ideal body condition. Ribs felt but not seen. Waist visible from side and above.

17

0/3 MCS *

severe muscle wasting. Requires palpation to determine

18

body weight = *

fat, muscle, bones, water

19

morphometry *

the process of measuring the external shape and dimensions of an animal. I.e. by assessing BMI, skin fold thickness

20

BMI = *

weight/height. Only works for humans

21

Feline BMI formula *

% body fat = 1.5 x C - 2 x L where C = chest circumference and L = limb length

22

lymphopaenia can be due to: *

starvation or other dz

23

iron deficiency can cause low MCV *

:)

24

muscle wasting --> creatinine lvl *

decreases

25

T or F: glucose is rarely low when dogs don't eat *

F

26

why is low albumin due to nutritional deficiency bad? *

albumin has a long half-life, so if it goes down, it is usually a terminal event

27

Factors which affect whether an animal will eat *

1) palatibility
2) appetite
3) aversion (i.e. assoc. new food with sickness)
4) environment

28

can cats detect sucrose? *

no

29

Factors which affect palatibility *

odor, water, texture, protein/fat, aa, sucrose, taste enhancers, temp, flavors, bitterness, medium chain fatty acids, variety

30

steps in nutritional assessment *

1) assess status
2) determine route of admin.
3) determine caloric requirement
4) determine profile of protein, fat, CHO
5) initiate feeding
6) monitor response
7) return to normal feeding

31

major minerals

Ca, P, Na, K, Mg

32

what quantities are major minerals dosed in? *

g/1000 kcal

33

what quantities are minor minerals dosed in? *

mg/1000 kcal

34

What should a good diet history include? *

what, when, where, how much and by whom. food diary, appetite, activity, life stage, systems review

35

defs. of traditional 5 point BCS scale *

1: emaciated
2: thin
3: moderate
4: stout
5: obsese

36

What is included in subjective nutritional assessment? *

BCS, MCS

37

what is included in objective nutritional assessment? *

body weight, change in BW, morphometry, blood glucose, albumin, lymphocyte count, pre-almbumin, transferrin, retinol binding protein, IGF1, chemistries

38

T or F: MCFA caprylic acid has decreased palatibility in cats

T

39

What is digest?

product of partial enzymatic digestion of animal tissue that increases p food palatibility.

40

What to feed depends on:

1) nutrient composition
2) nutrient bioavailability
3) individual variation in energy intake
4) price
5) acceptance by patient

41

cat malnutrition --> CPK lvl

increases

42

cat malnutrition --> alkaline phosphatase

increases

43

transferrin is a measure of:

total iron binding capacity. Decreases in starvation

44

dog malnutrition --> insulin-like growth factor (IGF1)

decreases

45

prothrombin time and PIVKA test reflect:

vitamin K status

46

cachexia

fat loss, muscle wasting

47

causes of hyperkeratosis

vitamin A, zinc deficiency

48

causes of xerophthalmia (dry eye), blindness

vit. A def.

49

Causes of bowed legs, "rubber jaw", beaded ribs, pathological fractures

nutritional:vit. D, Ca and/or P def.
non-nutritional: Hyperparathyroidism primary or secondary to renal failure

50

causes of bone pain

nutritional: hypervitaminosis A
non-nutritional: tumor, fracture, dev. ortho dz

51

neophilic

love of new things