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Flashcards in Chapter 1-B Deck (59)
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1
Q

When organizing and managing work in an organization, the key idea of BPM is to focus on

A

Processes

2
Q

They focused on the entire process for all products

A

Pure generalists

3
Q

They focused on the entire process for a single product

A

Intermediate specialist

4
Q

They focused on a single part of a process for a single product

A

Pure specialist

5
Q

Among others, this book discusses the division of labor that is used by a manufacturing company for producing pins

A

Adam Smith: “An inquiry into the nature and causes of the wealth of nations”

6
Q

Proposed a set of principles known as scientific management

A

Frederick W. Taylor

7
Q

A key element in Taylor’s approach is an extreme form of labor division and work analysis

A

By meticulously studying labor activities, Taylor developed very specific work instructions for workers. Workers would only be involved with carrying out one of the many steps in the production process. Not only in industry, but also in administrative settings, such as government organizations, the concept of division of labor became the most dominant form of organizing work

8
Q

A side effect of the ideas of Taylor and his contemporaries was the emergence of an altogether new class of professionals

A

Managers

9
Q

Managers are not necessarily experts in carrying out the job they oversee

A

Their main interest is to optimize how a job is done with the resources under their supervision

10
Q

These units are overseen by managers with different responsibilities. Moreover, the units and their managers are structured hierarchically. Example: groups are placed under departments, departments are placed under business units, etc.

A

Functional units, in which people with a similar focus on part of the production process are grouped together

11
Q

Emerged from the mindset of the Second Industrial Revolution and dominated the corporate landscape for the greatest part of the 19th and 20th centuries

A

Functional organizations

12
Q

The fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical, contemporary measures of performance, such as cost, quality, service, and speed

A

Business process re-engineering (BPR)

13
Q

A key element is that a problematic situation (i.e., an excessive amount of time and resources spent on checking documents in accounts payable) is approached by considering an entire process

A

Urging managers to look at entire, end-to-end processes when trying to improve the operations of their business, instead of looking at one particular task or business function

14
Q

A manager that is responsible for a business process and is concerned with planning and organizing the process on one hand and monitoring the process on the other

A

Process owner

15
Q

Set goals and exceptions, establish plans and budget, provide resources and staff, implement process

A

Plan and organize process

16
Q

Monitor process, reinforce success, diagnose deviations, take corrective actions

A

Monitor and control process

17
Q

While both BPR and BPM approaches take the business process as a starting point, BPR is primarily concerned with planning and organizing the process

A

By contrast, BPM provides concepts, methods, techniques, and tools that cover all aspects of managing a process (to plan, organize, and monitor it) as well as its actual execution

18
Q

BPR should be seen as

A

A subset of techniques that can be used in the context of BPM

19
Q

The first question that a team embarking on a BPM initiative needs to clarify

A

Which business processes do we aim to improve?

20
Q

If the organization has engaged in BPM initiatives before, it is likely that an inventory of business processes is available and that the scope of these processes has been defined, at least to some extent

A

Process thinking

21
Q

In organizations that have not engaged in BPM before, the BPM team has to start by at least identifying the processes that are relevant to the problem on the table, delimiting the scope of these processes, and identifying relations between these processes

A

Process identification phase

22
Q

A collection of inter-linked processes covering the bulk of the work that an organization performs in order to achieve its mission in a sustainable manner

A

Process architecture

23
Q

The purpose of engaging in a BPM initiative is

A

To ensure that the business processes covered by the BPM initiative lead to consistently positive outcomes and deliver maximum value to an organization in servicing its clients

24
Q

Measuring the value delivered by a process is a crucial step in BPM

A

As renowned software engineer Tom DeMarco once famously put it: “You can’t control what you can’t measure”

25
Q

Before starting to analyze any process in detail, it is important to clearly define

A

The process performance measures (also called process performance metrics) that will be used to determine whether a process is in good shape or in bad shape

26
Q

Typical process performance measures relate to

A

Cost
Time
Quality
Flexibility

27
Q

The percentage of times that an execution of the process ends up in a negative outcome

A

Error rate

28
Q

Capture the extent to which the performance of a process is maintained under changing or abnormal conditions. Example: when a works engineer resigns suddenly or when a supplier goes bankrupt

A

Flexibility measures

29
Q

The identification of performance measures (and associated performance objectives) is crucial in

A

Any BPM initiative

30
Q

Typically, one of the outcomes of this phase is one or several as-is process models. These as-is process models reflect the understanding that people in the organization have about how work is done

A

Process discovery phase

31
Q

Process models are meant to facilitate communication between stakeholders involved in a BPM initiative

A

Therefore, they have to be easy to understand

32
Q

In principle, we could model a business process by means of textual descriptions. However, such textual descriptions are cumbersome to read and easy to misinterpret because of the ambiguity inherent in free-form text

A

This is why it is common practice to use diagrams in order to model business processes

33
Q

Consist of rectangles, which represent activities, and diamonds, which represent points in the process where a decision is made

A

Flowcharts

34
Q

Basic types of nodes

A

Activity nodes
Control nodes
Event nodes

35
Q

Describe units of work that may be performed by humans or software applications, or a combination thereof

A

Activity nodes

36
Q

Capture the flow of execution between activities

A

Control nodes

37
Q

Tells us that something may or must happen, within the process or in the environment of the process, that requires a reaction

A

Event nodes

38
Q

Here, the flowchart is divided into so-called swimlanes, which denote different organizational units (e.g., different departments in a company)

A

Cross-organizational flowchart

39
Q

Widely-used standard for process modeling

A

Business process model and notation (BPMN)

40
Q

Activities are represented as

A

Rounded rectangles

41
Q

Control nodes (called gateways) are represented using

A

Diamond shapes

42
Q

Activities and control nodes are connected by means of

A

Arcs (called sequence flows) that determine the order in which the process is executed

43
Q

Each of the process participants is shown in

A

A separate lane, which contains the activities performed by the participant in question

44
Q

The identification and assessment of issues and opportunities for process improvement

A

Process analysis phase

45
Q

When one or several tasks are repeated because something went wrong

A

Rework

46
Q

Sometimes, a negative outcome might stem from miscommunication, for example between the site engineer and the clerk. On other occasions, it might come from inaccurate data (e.g., errors in the description of the equipment) or from an error on the supplier’s side

A

By identifying, classifying, and understanding the main causes of such negative outcomes, the analyst can ultimately find ways of eliminating or minimizing them

47
Q

Assessing the issues of a process often goes hand-in-hand with

A

Measuring the current state of the process with respect to certain performance measures

48
Q

Armed with an understanding of the issues in a process and a candidate set of potential remedies, analysts can propose a redesigned version of the process. This to-be process design is the main output of

A

Process redesign phase

49
Q

It is important to keep in mind that analysis and redesign are intricately related

A

There may be multiple redesign options. Each of these options needs to be analyzed, so that an informed choice can be made as to which option is preferable

50
Q

Once redesigned, the necessary changes in the ways of working and the IT systems of the organization should be implemented so that the to-be process can eventually be put into execution

A

Process implementation phase

51
Q

Process implementation involves two complementary facets

A

Organizational change management

Process automation

52
Q

Refers to the set of activities required to change the way of working of all participants involved in the process

A

Organizational change management

53
Q

Involves the configuration or implementation of an IT system to support the to-be process

A

Process automation

54
Q

Organizational change management includes

A

Explaining the changes to the process participants (to the point that they understand both what changes are being introduced and why these changes are beneficial to the company)
Putting in place a change management plan so that stakeholders know when the changes will come into effect and what transitional arrangements will be employed to address problems during the transition to the to-be process
Training users to the new way of working and monitoring the changes in order to ensure a smooth transition to the to-be process

55
Q

The IT system (in process automation) should support process participants in the performance of the tasks of the process. This may include

A

Assigning tasks to process participants, helping process participants to prioritize their work, providing process participants with the information they need to perform a task, and performing automated cross-checks and other automated tasks where possible

56
Q

Over time, adjustments may be required in the implemented business process when it does not meet expectations any longer

A

To this end, the process needs to be monitored

57
Q

Analysts ought to scrutinize the data collected by monitoring the process in order to identify adjustments

A

Process monitoring phase

58
Q

Lack of continuous monitoring and improvement of a process leads to

A

Degradation

59
Q

As Hammer once put it: every good process eventually becomes a bad process”, unless continuously adapted and improved to keep up with the ever-changing landscape of customer needs, technology and competition

A

This is why the BPM lifecycle should be seen as circular: the output of the monitoring phase feeds back into the discovery, analysis, and redesign phases