Flashcards in Chapter 1 - Basic Elements of a Medical Word Deck (34):
A medical word consists of all or some of what elements?
- word root
- combining form
the foundation of a medical term which contains its primary meaning.
(ex. the Greek term, dermatos, referring to the skin. The word root is DERMAT. The Latin term cutis identifies a part of the skin. The word root is CUTANE.)
Greek roots rule
Greek roots are used to build words that describe a disease, condition, treatment, or diagnosis.
(ex. dermat-itis, dermat is the word root meaning skin and itis is the condition, meaning inflammation.)
Latin roots rule
Latin roots are used to build words that describe anatomical structures.
(ex, cutane-ous, cutis is the word root to identify anatomical structure, and ous meas pertaining to the skin.)
When a word is combined with a vowel.
Part of a combining form, usually an o but, sometimes an i.
(No real meaning of its own but it enables two or more word elements to be connected.)
A word element placed at the end of a word that changes the meaning of the word.
A word element attached to the beginning of a word or word root.
(Not all medical terms have a prefix. Adding or changing a prefix changes the meaning of the word. The prefix usually indicates a number, time, position, direction or negation.)
3 Steps to define medical words
1. Define the suffix or last part of the word. (ex. itis, means inflammation)
2. Define the first part of the word. Which could be a word root, combining form, or a prefix. (ex. the combining form, gastr/o, means stomach)
3. Define the middle part of the word. (ex, the word root is enter, means intestine.)
When yo put it all together, the word GASTROENTERITIS means the inflammation of the stomach and intestine.
3 rules to building medical words
A word root links a suffix that begins with a vowel.
(ex. hepat is the word root which means liver and the suffix is itis, which means inflammation. The meaning is inflammation of the liver and the medical word becomes hepatitis meaning inflammation of the liver.)
A combining form (root + o) links a suffix that begins with a consonant.
(ex. hepat/o is the combining form and the suffix is cyte which means cell. The meaning is liver cell and the medical word becomes hepatocyte)
A combining form links one root to another root to form a compound words.
(rule holds true if the second root begins with a vowel, like osteoarthritis)
(ex. the combining form is oste/o which means bone and the root word is chondr which means cartilage and the suffix is itis, making the medical word oseteochondritis, meaning inflammation of the bone and cartilage.)
(ex, the combining form is oseto/o which means bone and the root word is athr which means joint, the suffix is itis which means inflammation, making the medical word inflammation of the bone and joint.)
What vowels are pronounced for ae and oe?
Only the second vowel.
(ex. bursae, pleurae and roentgen)
What soft sounds are given to c and g, before e, i, and y in words of Greek or Latin?
The soft sounds are s and g are given to c and g
(ex. cerebrum, circumcision, cycle, gel, gingivitis, giant and gyrate.)
c and g have a hard sound when?
Before other letters
(ex. cardiac, cast, gastric, and gonad)
The letters ch are sometimes pronounced how?
Pronounced like k
(ex. cholesterol, cholera, and cholemia)
What happens when pn appears at the beginning of a word?
p is silent and only the n is pronounced.
(ex. pneumonia and pneunotoxin)
What happens when pn appears in the middle of the word?
p and n are pronounced
(ex. orthopnea and hyperpnea)
What happens when ps appears at the beginning of a word?
p is silent and only the s is pronounced
(ex. psychology and psychosis)
What happens when forming the final letter(s) of a word, e and es?
e and es are commonly pronounced as separate syllables.
(ex, syncope, systole, and nares)
What happens when i appears at the end of a word to form a plural?
It is pronounced eye
(ex. bronchi, fungi, and nuclei)
What are diacritical marks?
The symbols placed above the vowels which show vowel sounds.
The macron (-) means?
The macron indicates the long sound of vowels.
(ex. a in rate, e in rebirth, i in isle, o in over, u in unite)
The breve (u) means?
The breve indicates the short sound of vowels.
(ex. a in apple, e in ever, i in it, o in not, u in cut)
dermat (word root)
ex, dermat/itis: inflammation of the skin
cutane (word root)
ex. cutane/ous: pertaining to the skin
nephr (word root)
ex. nephr/oma: tumor of the kidney
ren (word root)
ex. ren/al: pertains to the kidney
stomat (word root)
ex. stomat/itis: inflammation of the mouth
or (word root)
ex. or/al: pertaining to the mouth
immune, immunity, safe