Flashcards in Chapter 1-Cells and Trasnportation Of Substances Deck (78):
What is Magnification?
The action of magnifying something or the process of being magnified.
What is resolution?
Resolution is the ability to distinguish between two separate points in an image.
What is the I AM triangle
The I AM triangle shows us how to calculate Image,Actual size and Magnification.
Image= Actual size x magnification
Magnification= Image/actual size
What is the Nucleus?
The nucleus controls the activity of the cell and contains DNA.
What is the cytoplasm?
It is where all the chemical reactions in the cell take place.
What is the cell membrane?
The cell membrane controls how and what substances come in and out of the cell.
What is the mitochondria?
They are organelles that act like a digestive system which takes in nutrients, breaks them down, and creates energy rich molecules for the cell.
What is the ribosome?
The ribosome creates protein for the cell and repairs the damage.
What is the cellulose cell wall?
The cellulose wall is an additional layer outside the cell membrane that provide strength through the fibre it contains.
ONLY PRESENT IN PLANT CELLS
What is the large permanent vacuole?
The large permanent vacuole creates a structure for the plant cell.
ONLY PRESENT IN PLANT CELLS
What is a chloroplast?
The chloroplasts contain chlorophyll that absorbs light used for photosynthesis
ONLY PRESENT IN PLANT CELLS
What are eukaryotic cells?
Eukaryotic cells are cells that evolved from prokaryotic cells. They are larger and more complex. They contain a nucleus,organelles. Are single celled or multi cellular. And have multiple linear chromosomes.
What are Prokaryotic cells?
Prokaryotic cells are the oldest cell type and are small and simple. They lack a nucleus and organelles. They are single celled and have one long chromosome.
What is a plasmid?
Plasmids are loops of DNA in the cytoplasm. Plasmids are naturally able to pass from one bacterial cell to another.
What is Order of Magnitude?
A class in a system of classification determined by size, typically in powers of ten
Nerve cell adaptations
Neurones are adapted to their function by being long, so that they communicate with distant parts of the body.
Muscle cell adaptations
They have a biconcave disc shape that gives it a large surface area to carry more oxygen.
Sperm cell adaptations
The middle section is packed with mitochondria for energy. The tail moves the sperm to the egg.
Root hair cell adaptations
Root hair cells are adapted for this by having a large surface area to speed up osmosis.
What are xylem cells?
Xylem cells are the long tracheary elements that transport water.They are connected together into long tubes that are called vessels.
What are phloem cells?
Phloem, also called bast, tissues in plants that conduct foods made in the leaves to all other parts of the plant.
What is diffusion?
Diffusion is the net random movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
What is the rate of diffusion?
The rate of diffusion is increased when:
The distance is decreased
The surface area is increased
The concentration difference (concentration gradient) is increased
What is dilute?
Making a liquid thinner or weaker by adding water or another solvent to it.
"bleach can be diluted with cold water".
What is concentrated?
(Of a substance or solution) present in a high proportion relative to other substances; having had water or other diluting agent removed or reduced.
What is osmosis?
Osmosis is the movement of water molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration across a partially permeable membrane to.
What is Crenation?
When an animal cell is placed in a more concentrated solution then there is more water inside the cell. Therefore water wall rush out of the cell to the surroundings which are more concentrated. If the cell loses too much water it becomes shrivelled up. This is called crenation.
What is Lysis?
When an animal cell is placed in a more die loot solution there is more water outside the cell so water rushes into the cell. This could cause it to swell up and burst because there is no cell wall. This is called lysis.
What is plasmolysed?
When an animal cell is placed in a more concentrated solution there is more water inside the cell. Therefore the water will leave the cell by osmosis. This causes the cell membrane to pull away from the cell wall. This is called plasmolysed.
What is turgid?
When a plant cell is placed in the mood I need solution there is more water outside the cell. Therefore water will enter the cell by osmosis. This is called turgid.
What is active transport?
The movement of ions or molecules across a cell membrane into a region of higher concentration, assisted by enzymes and requiring energy.
What is turgor pressure?
Turgor pressure is the force within the cell that pushes the plasma membrane against the cell wall.
What is the SA to V ratio?
It shows the comparison between the size of the outside of an object and the amount it can hold it.
What is interphase?
This is when the cell prepares to divide – the cell increases in size – the DNA replicates (doubles) – organelles (mitochondria and ribosomes) increase in number
What is mitosis?
This is when chromosomes line up along the centre of the cell. Chromosomes get pulled to opposite ends of the cell. The nucleus divides.
What is cytokinesis?
This is when the cytoplasm and cell membrane divide and two identical cells are formed.
What is a gene?
A distinct feature passes from parent to offspring.Gene's code for out characteristics.
What is a chromosome?
A chromosome is a piece of DNA that carries genes.
What is a differentiated cell?
A differentiated cell is a Selter to specialise in one particular job.
What is an undifferentiated cell?
And I'm differentiated so as a cell that has not been specialised yet.
What is an embryonic stem cell?
Embryonic stem cells of stem cells found in membranes and can develop into almost every cell type under the right conditions.
What is an adult stem cell?
An adult stem cell is a stem cells found in adult tissues such as bone marrow. The cells can only change the same type of cell as the tissue that came from e.g liver stem cells can only become liver cells
What is a zygote?
A zygote is a eukaryotic cell formed by a fertilization event between two gametes.
What is cloning?
Making an identical copy of something
What is therapeutic cloning?
Therapeutic cloning refers to the removal of a nucleus, which contains the genetic material, from virtually any cell of the body (a somatic cell) and its transfer by injection into an unfertilised egg from which the nucleus has also been removed.
What is tissue?
The tissue is formed by lots of similar cells working together to perform the same function.
What is it an organ?
And organ is formed by lots of tissues working together.
What is an organ system?
Lots of organs working together.
What is the Small intestine?
A long thin tube that food moves through after the stomach. Digested food is absorbed from the small intestine into bloodstream. More enzymes are produced here to break down food further. The blood then transports the nutrients to all body cells.
What is the liver?
A large organ that produces a green liquid called pile that neutralises stomach acid and helps break down fats into tiny droplets.
What is the gallbladder?
A small sack below the liver.It stores and releases bile into the small intestine.
What is bile?
A liquid that neutralises stomach acid and helps break down fats into tiny droplets.
What is the protein?
They're good for growth to repair body tissues.
What is a carbohydrate?
They give us energy and prevent constipation.
What is lipase?
They give us energy and keep us warm they are made up of one molecule of glycerol.
What is an enzyme?
Enzymes are biological catalysts that speed up the rate of reactions in living things.
What is the active site?
The active site is where the reaction takes place.
What is the substrate molecule?
the substrate is a molecule upon which an enzyme act.
What is protease?
Am enzyme which breaks down proteins.
What is carbohydrase?
An enzyme that breaks down carbohydrates.
What is it denatured enzyme?
Different enzyme is overheated then it becomes denatured where it cannot work anymore.
What is blood plasma?
Blood plasma is a yellowish coloured liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells in whole blood in suspension.
What are red blood cells?
Blood cells that transport oxygen
What are white blood cells?
Blood cells that protect against disease.
What are platelets?
a small colourless disc-shaped cell fragment without a nucleus, found in large numbers in blood and involved in clotting.
What are arteries?
Arteries of blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart. Blood is it under very high pressure. Arteries carry oxygenated blood.
What are veins?
Veins carry blood to the heart. Blood is under low pressure. Veins carry deoxygenated blood.
What are capillaries?
They are tiny blood vessels. They allow the exchange of substances. They have no valves as they're too tiny.
What is a double circulatory system?
The majority of mammals (including humans) utilize a double circulatory system. This means we have two loops in our body in which blood circulates.
What is haemoglobin?
a red protein responsible for transporting oxygen in the blood of vertebrates
What is a LORD?
What is a stent?
A balloon that inflates in your blood vessel to unblock it.
What is a pacemaker?
a device for stimulating the heart muscle and regulating its contractions.
What are statins?
Tablets people take to help with blood pressure.
Adaptions of the alveoli?
The alveoli are specialised to maximise the diffusion of O2 and CO2. They have an enormous surface area. A moist lining for dissolving gases. Very thin walls. And a good blood supply.
What is the alveoli?
any of the many tiny air sacs of the lungs which allow for rapid gaseous exchange.
What is inhalation?
The process of breathing in.