Flashcards in chapter 1 chapter review Deck (65):
what two factors made the Pinkerton national detective agency very effective in dealing with outlaws?
unrestricted by jurisdiction
aided by employees record system
Of what importance is the closing of the frontier in 1890?
Transition from rural to urban
how is politics defined? why can't it be kept out of police agencies?
as process of maintaining control over gov.
* supervisor by elected vs. appointed
* actions taken/not taken by gov. agencies-policy expressed in law
* keep out of partisan
What was the machine politics in the 9th century?
as tightly controlled political party headed by boss purpose to win elections for personal gain.
What are the worst and best things about patronage/spoils system?
reward for loyalty rather than ability (1820-1883)
get jobs/liquor license etc.
why is the concept of a police profession so important?
change views of police officers from corruption to noble
how did gus Vollmer contribute to policing?
as father of modern law enforcement, incorporated first patrol cards, signal system, records system, crime analysis etc.
In what ways did prohibition affect policing?
were paid off to look the other way
What were the black codes and jim crow laws and what were they intended to accomplish?
keep african americans in their place.
In what ways did WWII affect law enforcement
open doors for women in police forcd
the unequal badge problem was institutionalized racism. what was it?
african american officers patrolled community of their own kind, not allowed to arrest white citizens.
what forces made the 1960's so politically and socially tumultuous?
cuba invasion, soviet union, racial tension, economic & racial tension - marquette frye - riots MLK assasination
how did the police rank and file become isolated in the 1960's
us against them. isolated/unsupported
what events lead to research on policing during the 1970's?
watergate, 2 assassination attempts on fords life, Ohio kent state students - killed by national guard.
What are COP, ZTP, Compstat, and EBP
zero tolerance policing
evidence base policing research
How did events in 19th Century England influence the development of unified, full time police departments in this country?
Made 2 shifts
improved agricultural methods
drawn to cities
cities grew/crime grew - metropolitan act passed
why is studying the evolution of policing crucial?
past important lessons
ignoring past will repeat
knowledge of past breeds "espirit de corps"
pride in heritage of profession
appreciation of those before us
comprehend prof. know where came from
vocab of policing
sets stage of disc. upcoming chapters
earliest american colonists depended on who, to patrol and alert them to threats?
citizens, night watchmen
New york city was known as?
What year in New Amsterdam was the office of sheriff created?
In what year and where, was the first city to have paid full time day police officers?
when and where was the first unified day/night police force created?
1844/New York City
During the 17th and 18th century, England's economy made two key shifts:
improved agricultural methods
people drawn to cities (industrial revolution) 1760-1830
Industrial revolution shifted manual labor to ____?
machine made initially textile industry
as englands population grew what happened?
slums, crime, social unrest escalated dealing w/crime inadequate
When did parliament pass the Metropolitan police act?
1829 strong support: Sir Robert Peele 1788-1850
Int he first 3 yrs. of passing the Metropolitan Police Act was there confidence and support? How Many officers dismissed? How many reassigned?
No / 5,000 / 6,000
When did the image of the wild and wooley west loom large?
90 yrs. 1800-1890
What was the pony express and how long did it last?
relay station every 10 miles (1860-1861) 1 yr due to telegraph
Where was gold discovered and what year?
sutters mill, california 1848
what did the discovery of gold contribute?
settlement for the west
what did the homestead act of 1862 provide?
Land to settlers
What year was the transcontinental railroad completed?
1869 barbed wire closed off open range
war with native americans 1823-1890 forced them onto?
reservations (money for police agency 1879 - united states mint police
by the 1920's how many americans lived in cities?
why was the pendelton act passed?
mandated some federal positions be competitive by examination & app. on merit
what committee was formed to provide "security for life and property?"
committee of vigilance 1851 executed criminals / forced officials to step down.
who was the lexow committee
established in NY 1845-1895 examine police corruption (10,000) pages
what were the needs of the reformation period in the 20th century 1900 - 1926
arousing public from it's apathy
creating a model separating politics
patronage from gov. agencies
what author exposed corruption in chicago 1906?
what did sinclairs novel uncover and help pass?
abuses at meat packing industry / FDA act
President Roosevelt labeled steffens and others who exposed scandals and corruption as _____?
who provided the conceptual corner store and who called for what?
provided by Woodrow wilson : called for separation of politics and administration
What did the boston police strike of 1919 do?
was seen as incompatible w/ new public service. mass & other states passed laws forbidding public unions
what organization completed a major study of crime and who worked on the police department?
cleveland foundation / raymond fosdick 1883-1972
uses outside experts to study police agencies
What does the word profession mean?
announce a belief pro (forth) fateri (confess)
1st public statements/declaration of faith
2nd 1541 learned occupation
3rd earned living 25 years later
mertons criteria: knowing/doing/helping
beckers criteria: call you one/you are
who is the father of modern law enforcement?
august vollmer 1905-1932
In berkley california they became the model of professional policing because of vollmer, why?
1st mobilized officers introduced, signal system, modern records system, crime analysis, geographical beats, scientific lab in u.s. 1916, lie detector 1921
What did the pendelton act of 1883 help end?
what did the federal hatch act do?
forbid federal employees from engaging in political activities - spurred similar for local gov.
what did the military model result in?
more positions in specialized work; inspections, accountability, "bureaucratic form of organization more military style - hired military officers
where did the temperance movement come from?
churches - drinking a sin (2nd 1/2 19th century)
when was prohibition? (volstead act) (National prohibition act)
1919-1933 created organized crime 18th amendment
when was the 18h amendment repealed by the 21st amendment?
what was the snatch racket?
criminals committing bank robberies & Kidnappings
in 1929 president hoover appointed national commission on law observance and law enforcement. What was this?
first comprehensive study of crime & policing in america's history "wickersham commission.
What was the Federal Forces act 1870 for?
WWII created position in the police department and defense industry - what was "born" during this time?
civil rights movement
The civil rights act of 1964 invalidated Jim Crow Laws. Title VII of the act forbade?
Businesses from discriminating - local gov. excluded until? equal employment act in 1972
what did the generic name Levitt town mean?
many suburban homes built by levitt brothers
The bus boycott lasted how long and reduced revenue ____ %?
381 days / 81% (1956-fed. gov. desegregation of bus system)
In 1959 what was POST created for?
California Peace Officers Standard and Training Commission - created standard of Police selection & training Professional licensing board
When was compstat implemented
1994 New York City