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Flashcards in Chapter 1 - Chemistry & Measurement Deck (130):
1

Who studied the effects of electricity on bacterial growth

Barnett Rosenberg + Coworkers

2

After inserting platinum wire electrodes into a live bacterial culture, what results did Barnett Rosenberg + Coworkers discover

Cell division in bacteria stopped, or was inhibited by a platinum substance.

3

What platinum containing substances are anti cancer drugs

1. Cisplatin
2. Carboplatin
3. Oxaliplatin

4

Defined as all the objects around you.
Ex: Books, pens, rocks, water, plants, animals.

Matter

5

Defined as each particular kind of matter.
Ex: Paper, plastic, metal, etc.

Material

6

Defined as the composition, structure, and changes of of materials.

Chemistry

7

Why is chemistry important?

Fashioned natural materials into useful products.

Ex: Drug design & delivery, nutrition, disease, biochemical studies, forensics, fossil fuels, nuclear energy, environmental sampling, polymers, plastics, glass, metals, LCDs, crystal engineering, CDs, superconductors, dyes, pesticides, fertilizers.

8

Define :
Central Principal of Modern Chemistry

Materials are composed of atoms. Atoms arrange into molecules.

9

Explain what it means for molecules to be synthesized

Building large molecules from smaller ones.

Ex: Tyrion purple(dye) synthesized from aniline.

10

In molecular models, balls represent (1.)_______ and lines represent (2.)________.

1. Atoms
2. Connection holding atoms together.

11

An observation of natural phenomena carried out in a controlled manner so that the results can be duplicated.

Experiment

12

A concise statement or mathematical equation about a fundamental relationship or regularity pf nature.

Law

13

A law which says that the mass, or quantity of matter, remains constant during any chemical change.

Law of Conservation of Mass

14

A tentative explanation of some regularity of nature.

Hypothesis

15

Tested explanation of basic natural phenomena.

Theory

16

We can prove a theory absolutely. (T/F)

False
We cannot prove a theory absolutely.

17

Theory that all gases are composed of very small particles called molecules.

Molecular theory of gases

18

The general process of advancing scientific knowledge through observation, the framing of laws, hypotheses, or theories, and the conducting of more experiments

Scientific method

19

Balance measures ________

Mass

20

General term for material things around us

Matter

21

Whatever occupies space and can be perceived by our senses.

Matter

22

A french chemist, whom was one of the first to insist on the use of the balance in chemistry.

Antoine Lavoisier

23

May involve a gain or loss of heat and other forms of energy.

Chemical reaction

24

States that the total mass remains constant during a chemical change (chemical reaction)

Law of Conservation of Mass

25

Place in order the general steps of the Scientific Method :

Results
Further experiments
Further experiments
Further experiments
Theory
Experiments
Hypothesis
Negative/Positive Results

1. Experiments
2. Results
3. Hypothesis
4. Further experiments
5. Negative/Positive Results
6. Further experiments
7. Theory (positive results)
8. Further experiments

26

What law applies to chemical reactions?

Law of Conservation of Mass

27

The force of gravity exerted on an object

weight

28

What are the 2 principal ways of classifying matter?

Physical state (solid, liquid, gas)
+
Chemical composition (element, compound mixture)

29

Give an example of a kind of matter that exists in different physical forms under different conditions.

water
- ice (solid water)
- liquid water
- steam (gaseous water)

30

The form of matter characterized by rigidity

solid

31

The form of matter that is relatively incompressible and has fixed shape and volume

solid

32

The form of matter that is a relatively incompressible fluid that has no fixed shape but fixed volume

liquid

33

The form of matter that is an easily compressible fluid, that is, given its quantity will fit into a container of almost any size and shape.

gas

34

The term often used to refer to the gaseous state of any kind of matter that normally exists as a liquid or a solid

vapor

35

What forms of matter compromise the states of matter

solid
liquid
gas

36

A change in the form of matter but not in its chemical identity

physical change

37

The process of dissolving one material in another is a further is an example of a

physical change

Ex: dissolve sodium chloride in water--------> clear liquid different from pure water

38

With what method (physical process) can you separate an easily vaporized liquid from another substance

Distillation

ex: sodium chloride (substance)

39

A change in which one or more kinds of matter are transformed into a new kind of matter or several new kinds of matter.

Chemical change, or Chemical reaction

40

The rusting of iron, during which iron combines with oxygen in the air to form a new material called rust is an example of what type of change?

Chemical Change

41

Can chemically combined substances be separated by physical means?

No. To recover materials a chemical change or a series of chemical changes is required.

42

How are materials characterized or identified?

Physical or Chemical Properties

43

A characteristic that can be observed for a material without changing its chemical identity.

Physical property

44

Physical state (solid, liquid, gas), melting point, and color are examples of ___________ property

physical

45

Iron's ability to react with oxygen and produce rust is an example of _________ property.

chemical

46

A kind of matter that cannot be separated into other kinds of matter by any physical process.

substance

ex: sodium chloride (distillation)

47

The study of matter and the physical or chemical changes it undergoes.

chemistry

48

A substance that cannot be separated or decomposed into simpler substances by chemical means

Element

49

How many elements have been identified

110

50

How many elements occur naturally on earth

90

51

(T/F) Some elements have been created by scientists

True

ex: americium , seaborgium

52

How are elements arranged on the modern periodic table?

increasing atomic number (left to right)

53

What letter represents main group elements on the periodic table

A

54

(T/F) Metalloids conduct at low temperatures

False. Conduct at high temperatures

55

(T/F) Metals conduct heat/electricity

True

56

Abundance percent by weight : oxygen (earth's crust)

46.1%

57

Abundance percent by weight : silicon (earth's crust)

28.2%

58

Abundance percent by weight : aluminum (earth's crust)

8.23%

59

Abundance percent by weight : iron (earth's crust)

5.63%

60

Abundance percent by weight : calcium (earth's crust)

4.15%

61

Abundance percent by weight : sodium (earth's crust)

2.36%

62

Abundance percent by weight : magnesium (earth's crust)

2.33%

63

Abundance percent by weight : potassium (earth's crust)

2.09%

64

Abundance percent by weight : titanium (earth's crust)

0.565%

65

Abundance percent by weight : Hydrogen (earth's crust)

0.14%

66

Abundance percent by weight : Hydrogen (universe)

75%

- most abundant element in the universe

67

Abundance percent by weight : Helium (universe)

23%

68

Name the symbol : Al

Aluminum

69

Name the symbol : As

Arsenic

70

Name the symbol : Ba

Barium

71

Name the symbol : Bi

Bismuth

72

Name the symbol : Br

Bromine

73

Name the symbol : Ca

Calcium

74

Name the symbol : C

Carbon

75

Name the symbol : Cl

Chlorine

76

Name the symbol : Cr

Chromium

77

Name the symbol : Co

Cobalt

78

Name the symbol : Cu

Copper

79

Name the symbol : F

Fluorine

80

Name the symbol : Au

Gold

81

Name the symbol : H

Hydrogen

82

Name the symbol : I

Iodine

83

Name the symbol : Fe

Iron

84

Name the symbol : Pb

Lead

85

Name the symbol : Mg

Magnesium

86

Name the symbol : Mn

Manganese

87

Name the symbol : Hg

Mercury

88

Name the symbol : Ni

Nickel

89

Name the symbol : N

Nitrogen

90

Name the symbol : O

Oxygen

91

Name the symbol : P

Phosphorus

92

Name the symbol : Pt

Platinum

93

Name the symbol : K

Potassium

94

Name the symbol : Si

Silicon

95

Name the symbol : Ag

Silver

96

Name the symbol : Na

Sodium

97

Name the symbol : S

Sulfer

98

Name the symbol : Sn

Tin

99

Name the symbol : W

Tungsten

100

Name the symbol : Zn

Zinc

101

Name the naturally occurring elements in diatomic form

H2, N2, O2, Cl2, Br2, I2, F2

102

A substance composed of atoms of two or more different elements chemically combined in fixed proportions.

Compound

ex: H2O(water), C6H1206(Glucose), H2O2(Hydrogen Peroxide), NH3(Ammonia)

103

Can only be separated into their pure components (elements) by chemical reactions

Compounds

104

This law states that a pure compound, whatever its source, always contains definite or constant proportions of the elements by mass.

Ex: 1.0000 gram of sodium chloride always contains 0.3934 gram of sodium and 0.6066 gram of chlorine, chemically combined.

Law of definite proportions

Ex: Sodium chloride has definite proportions of SODIUM and CHLORINE.

105

(T/F) properties of compounds are different from the properties of the elements from which they are formed

True

106

A material that can be separated by physical means into two or more substances.

Mixture

107

A mixture is separated by the physical processes of either _______ or __________

Distillation
chromatography

108

Mixtures are classified into two types, which are :

Heterogeneous mixture

Or

Homogeneous mixture

109

A mixture that consist of physically distinct parts, each with different properties.

Composition is not uniform through out

Heterogeneous mixture

Ex: salt and sugar in water, stirred = seperate crystals.

Ex: potassium dichromate and iron fillings

Ex: Granite

pg. 11

110

A mixture, also known as a solution, that is uniform or the same in its properties throughout given samples.

Homogeneous mixture

Ex: sodium chloride dissolved in water.

Ex: all solutions

Ex: Brass (a homogeneous mixture of copper and zinc)

pg. 11

111

One of several different homogeneous materials present in the portion of matter under study.

Phase

Ex: A heterogeneous mixture of salt and sugar is said to be composed of two different phases: salt phase, and sugar phase.

pg. 11

112

What type of mixture are solutions?

Homogeneous

113

Name two homogeneous mixtures with variable composition components

1. Solvent

2. Solute

114

Based on solutions name the substance present in larger amounts

solvent

115

Based on solutions name the substance present in smaller amounts

solute

116

(T/F) Solutions may only be solid, or liquid.

False. Solutions may be solid, liquids, or gases.

117

Physical means can be used to separate a ___________ into its pure components.

mixture

Ex: Distillation, Magnet, Filtration, Chromatography

Pg. 11

118

Separates heterogeneous solid-liquid mixture by passing the mixture through a barrier like filter with fine pores.

Filtration

119

Mixtures can b e separated by physical processes into ___________

substances

120

Substances can be combined physically into ________

mixtures

121

Compounds can be separated by chemical reactions into their___________

elements

122

Elements can be combined chemically to form ______________

compounds

123

Does not alter the composition or identity of a substance

ex: ice melting, water evaporating

physical change

124

Alters the composition or identity of the substance(s) involved

Ex: burning, rusting------> hydrogen burns in air to form water: 2H2 + O2 = 2H2O

chemical change

125

Refers to the closeness of the set of values obtained from similar measurements of an identical quantity.

precision

126

Refers to the closeness of a single measurement to its true value

Accuracy

127

Measurements of high precision are usually __________

accurate

128

A number that arises when you count items or sometimes when you define a unit

exact number

129

How close a measurement is to the true value

accuracy

130

How close a set of measurements are to each other

percision