Flashcards in Chapter 1 - Chemistry & Measurement Deck (130):
Who studied the effects of electricity on bacterial growth
Barnett Rosenberg + Coworkers
After inserting platinum wire electrodes into a live bacterial culture, what results did Barnett Rosenberg + Coworkers discover
Cell division in bacteria stopped, or was inhibited by a platinum substance.
What platinum containing substances are anti cancer drugs
Defined as all the objects around you.
Ex: Books, pens, rocks, water, plants, animals.
Defined as each particular kind of matter.
Ex: Paper, plastic, metal, etc.
Defined as the composition, structure, and changes of of materials.
Why is chemistry important?
Fashioned natural materials into useful products.
Ex: Drug design & delivery, nutrition, disease, biochemical studies, forensics, fossil fuels, nuclear energy, environmental sampling, polymers, plastics, glass, metals, LCDs, crystal engineering, CDs, superconductors, dyes, pesticides, fertilizers.
Central Principal of Modern Chemistry
Materials are composed of atoms. Atoms arrange into molecules.
Explain what it means for molecules to be synthesized
Building large molecules from smaller ones.
Ex: Tyrion purple(dye) synthesized from aniline.
In molecular models, balls represent (1.)_______ and lines represent (2.)________.
2. Connection holding atoms together.
An observation of natural phenomena carried out in a controlled manner so that the results can be duplicated.
A concise statement or mathematical equation about a fundamental relationship or regularity pf nature.
A law which says that the mass, or quantity of matter, remains constant during any chemical change.
Law of Conservation of Mass
A tentative explanation of some regularity of nature.
Tested explanation of basic natural phenomena.
We can prove a theory absolutely. (T/F)
We cannot prove a theory absolutely.
Theory that all gases are composed of very small particles called molecules.
Molecular theory of gases
The general process of advancing scientific knowledge through observation, the framing of laws, hypotheses, or theories, and the conducting of more experiments
Balance measures ________
General term for material things around us
Whatever occupies space and can be perceived by our senses.
A french chemist, whom was one of the first to insist on the use of the balance in chemistry.
May involve a gain or loss of heat and other forms of energy.
States that the total mass remains constant during a chemical change (chemical reaction)
Law of Conservation of Mass
Place in order the general steps of the Scientific Method :
4. Further experiments
5. Negative/Positive Results
6. Further experiments
7. Theory (positive results)
8. Further experiments
What law applies to chemical reactions?
Law of Conservation of Mass
The force of gravity exerted on an object
What are the 2 principal ways of classifying matter?
Physical state (solid, liquid, gas)
Chemical composition (element, compound mixture)
Give an example of a kind of matter that exists in different physical forms under different conditions.
- ice (solid water)
- liquid water
- steam (gaseous water)
The form of matter characterized by rigidity
The form of matter that is relatively incompressible and has fixed shape and volume
The form of matter that is a relatively incompressible fluid that has no fixed shape but fixed volume
The form of matter that is an easily compressible fluid, that is, given its quantity will fit into a container of almost any size and shape.
The term often used to refer to the gaseous state of any kind of matter that normally exists as a liquid or a solid
What forms of matter compromise the states of matter
A change in the form of matter but not in its chemical identity
The process of dissolving one material in another is a further is an example of a
Ex: dissolve sodium chloride in water--------> clear liquid different from pure water
With what method (physical process) can you separate an easily vaporized liquid from another substance
ex: sodium chloride (substance)
A change in which one or more kinds of matter are transformed into a new kind of matter or several new kinds of matter.
Chemical change, or Chemical reaction
The rusting of iron, during which iron combines with oxygen in the air to form a new material called rust is an example of what type of change?
Can chemically combined substances be separated by physical means?
No. To recover materials a chemical change or a series of chemical changes is required.
How are materials characterized or identified?
Physical or Chemical Properties
A characteristic that can be observed for a material without changing its chemical identity.
Physical state (solid, liquid, gas), melting point, and color are examples of ___________ property
Iron's ability to react with oxygen and produce rust is an example of _________ property.
A kind of matter that cannot be separated into other kinds of matter by any physical process.
ex: sodium chloride (distillation)
The study of matter and the physical or chemical changes it undergoes.
A substance that cannot be separated or decomposed into simpler substances by chemical means
How many elements have been identified
How many elements occur naturally on earth
(T/F) Some elements have been created by scientists
ex: americium , seaborgium
How are elements arranged on the modern periodic table?
increasing atomic number (left to right)
What letter represents main group elements on the periodic table
(T/F) Metalloids conduct at low temperatures
False. Conduct at high temperatures
(T/F) Metals conduct heat/electricity
Abundance percent by weight : oxygen (earth's crust)
Abundance percent by weight : silicon (earth's crust)
Abundance percent by weight : aluminum (earth's crust)
Abundance percent by weight : iron (earth's crust)
Abundance percent by weight : calcium (earth's crust)
Abundance percent by weight : sodium (earth's crust)
Abundance percent by weight : magnesium (earth's crust)
Abundance percent by weight : potassium (earth's crust)
Abundance percent by weight : titanium (earth's crust)
Abundance percent by weight : Hydrogen (earth's crust)
Abundance percent by weight : Hydrogen (universe)
- most abundant element in the universe
Abundance percent by weight : Helium (universe)
Name the symbol : Al
Name the symbol : As
Name the symbol : Ba
Name the symbol : Bi
Name the symbol : Br
Name the symbol : Ca
Name the symbol : C
Name the symbol : Cl
Name the symbol : Cr
Name the symbol : Co
Name the symbol : Cu
Name the symbol : F
Name the symbol : Au
Name the symbol : H
Name the symbol : I
Name the symbol : Fe
Name the symbol : Pb
Name the symbol : Mg
Name the symbol : Mn
Name the symbol : Hg
Name the symbol : Ni
Name the symbol : N
Name the symbol : O
Name the symbol : P
Name the symbol : Pt
Name the symbol : K
Name the symbol : Si
Name the symbol : Ag
Name the symbol : Na
Name the symbol : S
Name the symbol : Sn
Name the symbol : W
Name the symbol : Zn
Name the naturally occurring elements in diatomic form
H2, N2, O2, Cl2, Br2, I2, F2
A substance composed of atoms of two or more different elements chemically combined in fixed proportions.
ex: H2O(water), C6H1206(Glucose), H2O2(Hydrogen Peroxide), NH3(Ammonia)
Can only be separated into their pure components (elements) by chemical reactions
This law states that a pure compound, whatever its source, always contains definite or constant proportions of the elements by mass.
Ex: 1.0000 gram of sodium chloride always contains 0.3934 gram of sodium and 0.6066 gram of chlorine, chemically combined.
Law of definite proportions
Ex: Sodium chloride has definite proportions of SODIUM and CHLORINE.
(T/F) properties of compounds are different from the properties of the elements from which they are formed
A material that can be separated by physical means into two or more substances.
A mixture is separated by the physical processes of either _______ or __________
Mixtures are classified into two types, which are :
A mixture that consist of physically distinct parts, each with different properties.
Composition is not uniform through out
Ex: salt and sugar in water, stirred = seperate crystals.
Ex: potassium dichromate and iron fillings
A mixture, also known as a solution, that is uniform or the same in its properties throughout given samples.
Ex: sodium chloride dissolved in water.
Ex: all solutions
Ex: Brass (a homogeneous mixture of copper and zinc)
One of several different homogeneous materials present in the portion of matter under study.
Ex: A heterogeneous mixture of salt and sugar is said to be composed of two different phases: salt phase, and sugar phase.
What type of mixture are solutions?
Name two homogeneous mixtures with variable composition components
Based on solutions name the substance present in larger amounts
Based on solutions name the substance present in smaller amounts
(T/F) Solutions may only be solid, or liquid.
False. Solutions may be solid, liquids, or gases.
Physical means can be used to separate a ___________ into its pure components.
Ex: Distillation, Magnet, Filtration, Chromatography
Separates heterogeneous solid-liquid mixture by passing the mixture through a barrier like filter with fine pores.
Mixtures can b e separated by physical processes into ___________
Substances can be combined physically into ________
Compounds can be separated by chemical reactions into their___________
Elements can be combined chemically to form ______________
Does not alter the composition or identity of a substance
ex: ice melting, water evaporating
Alters the composition or identity of the substance(s) involved
Ex: burning, rusting------> hydrogen burns in air to form water: 2H2 + O2 = 2H2O
Refers to the closeness of the set of values obtained from similar measurements of an identical quantity.
Refers to the closeness of a single measurement to its true value
Measurements of high precision are usually __________
A number that arises when you count items or sometimes when you define a unit
How close a measurement is to the true value