Chapter 1 Critical Thinking Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Critical Thinking Deck (56):
1

Hindsight Bias

The tendency to believe after learning an outcome that you foreseen it. (I knew it all along phenomenon) overconfidence

2

Critical Thinking

Smart thinking. Thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. It examines assumptions, appraises the source, discerns hidden biases, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions.

3

Theory

An explanation using a integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events.

4

Hypothesis

A testable prediction implied by a theory

5

Operational Definition

Statement of the process used to define reasonable variables.

6

Replication

Repeating the essence of a research study. Usually they do this with different parties.

7

Case Study

A techniques in which one person is studied in depth in hope of revealing universal principles.

8

Naturalistic Observation

Observing and recording behavior in a naturally occurring situation without trying to manipulate or control the situation.

9

Survey

Technique for ascertaining self reported attitudes or behaviors of a group. Usually by questioning a representative random sample of the group.

10

Population

All the cases in the group being studied, from which sample might be drawn.

11

Random Sample

Sample that fairly represents a population because each member has equal chance of inclusion

12

Correlation

A measure of the extent to which two factors vary together. Other factor predicts the other. This helps us predict.

13

Correlation Coefficient

Statistical index of the relationship between two things. Helps us see the world more clearly.

14

Experimental Group

The group that is exposed to the treatment.

15

Control Group

In a experiment this is the group that did not get exposed to the treatment, contrast with the experimental
group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.

16

Experiment

A research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors. To observe the effect on some behavior or mental process.

17

Random Assignment

Assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, this minimizes preexisting differences between those assigned to different groups.

18

Double Blind Procedure

An experimental procedure in which both the participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about wether the research participants have received the treatment or placebo.

19

Placebo Effect

Experimental results caused by expectations alone. Any effect or behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition.

20

Independent Variable

The experimental factor that is manipulated, variable whose effect is being studied.

21

Confounding Variable

Factor other then the independent variable that might produce an effect in a experiment. (Weight, age, personality)

22

Dependent Variable

The outcome factor. The Variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent Variable.

23

Measures of Central Tendency

A single score that represents a whole set of scores.

24

Mode

The most frequently occurring scores in a distribution.

25

Mean

The arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores.

26

Median

The middle scores in a distribution. Half the scores are above and half are below it.

27

Standard Deviation

A computer measure of how much scores vary around the mean score.

28

Range

The difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution.

29

Normal Curve

A symmetrical. Bell shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data. Most scores fall near the median.

30

Statistical Significance

Statistical significance is the likelihood that a relationship between two or more variables is caused by something other than random chance.

31

Structuralism

Early school of thought promoted by Wundt and Titchener, used introspection to reveal the structure of the human mind.

32

Functionalism

Early school of thought promoted by James and influenced by Darwin. Explored how mental and behavioral processes function.

33

Whiten Calkins

First woman to become president of the American Psychological Association. Pioneer memory researcher.

34

Willem Wundt

Founded the first school of Psychology in Germany's University in Dec. 1879

35

Behaviorism

The view that psychology should be an objective science that studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Assumes that all behaviors are reflexes.

36

Humanistic Psychology

Historically significant perspective that emphasized human growth potential.

37

Psychology

The science of behavior and mental processes.

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Cognitive Neuroscience

The science of the brain. Study of the brain activity linked with cognition.

39

Nature-Nurture Issue

A longstanding debate that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors.

40

Introspection

The examination or observation of one's own mental and emotional processes

41

Margaret Floy Washburn

First female to receive a PHD in psychology

42

Natural Selection

Principle that those chance inherited traits that better enable us to survive and reproduce in a particular environment will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations. (Survival of the fittest)

43

Evolutionary Psychology

The study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection.

44

Behavior Genetics

The study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior.

45

Positive Psychology

The scientific study of human functioning, with the goals of discovering and promoting strengths and virtues that help individuals and communities thrive.

46

Culture

Enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions, shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.

47

Levels of Analysis

The differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon.

48

Basic Research

Pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base.

49

Applied Research

Scientific study that aims to solve practical problems.

50

Counseling Psychology

A branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living. (School, work, marriage) achieving greater well being.

51

Clinical Psychology

A branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological behaviors.

52

Psychiatry

A branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders.

53

Community Psychology

A branch of psychology that studies how people interact with their social environment and how social institutions affect individual groups.

54

Intuition

An effortless, immediate, automatic feeling, or thought.

55

Testing Effect

Enhanced memory after retrieving, rather than simply rereading info.

56

Sq3r

A study method incorporating five steps.
Survey, question, read, retrieve, and review.