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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Exam 1 Deck (118):
1

Independent variable

Manipulated in the experiment
Different types of mold
(Types of tomatoes)

2

Dependent variable

Measured variable. Provides quantitative data for analysis.
(Taste, smell, "outcome")

3

Controlled

Maintaining identical conditions for all other variables between test groups

4

Alexander Fleming*

1928
Staphylococcus aureus
Mold
Penicillium notatum
Hypothesis: mold is secreting something that kills bacteria

5

Positive control

Used to validate experimental procedure, to provide a positive result

6

Negative control

Used to validate experimental procedure, provides a negative result, shows the materials are not contaminated

7

Microorganisms

Too small to see wi the naked eye
Bacteria, archaea, algae, Protozoa, fungi (molds and yeast) viruses

8

Phylogeny

The study of evolutionary relationships among organisms

Genetic relatedness

9

Scientific method

Observation, hypothesis, experimentation, analysis, conclusion

10

Pathogenic

Disease producing

11

Carolus Linnaeus

1735 system of nomenclature
Genus (1st name) and species, italicized or underlined,
After a scientific name has been mentioned once, it can be abbreviated with the initial of the genus followed by the species name

12

Bacteria and archaea

Unicellular organisms
Genetic material not enclosed in a nuclear membrane (prokaryote)

13

Strepto

Chains

14

Enterica

Intestines

15

Sarccharomyces

Sugar fungus

16

Pyogen

Pus

17

Cerevisa

Beer

18

Chrysogenum

Yellow

19

Trypanosome

Borer body

20

Bacillus

Rod like

21

Coccus

Spherical or ovoid

22

Peptidoglycan

Protein carbohydrate cell wall

23

Binary fission

Reproducing by dividing into 2 equal parts

24

Archae

No Peptidoglycan
No human disease

25

Methanogens

Archaea that produce methane

26

Extreme thermophiles

Archaea that live in hot sulfurous water

27

Extreme halophiles

Archaea that live in extreme salt

28

Bacillus

Rod like

29

Coccus

Spherical or ovoid

30

Peptidoglycan

Protein carbohydrate cell wall

31

Binary fission

Reproducing by dividing into 2 equal parts

32

Archae

No Peptidoglycan
No human disease
Discovered by Charles woese

33

Methanogens

Archaea that produce methane

34

Extreme thermophiles

Archaea that live in hot sulfurous water

35

Extreme halophiles

Archaea that live in extreme salt

36

Eukaryotes (distinct nucleus containing the cell's Dna)
Kingdom fungi
Unicellular or multicellular
No photosynthesis
Chitin
Yeast mold slime mold (amoeba + mold)
Can reproduce sexually or asexually
Can absorb organic material from the environment

Fungi

37

Yeasts

Oval
Larger than bacteria

38

Molds

Made of mycelia (composed of filaments called hyphae)
Cottony

39

Unicellular eukaryotes
Pseudopods, flagella or cilia
Free entities or parasites
Can reproduce sexually or asexually



Protozoa

40

Parasites

Derive nutrients from living hosts or ingest organic compounds from their environment

41

Euglena

Photosynthetic Protozoa

42

Photosynthetic eukaryotes
Sexual and asexual reproduction
Usually unicellular
Cell walls of cellulose
In Water soil or plants
Do not generally require organic compounds from the environment
Autotrophs - carbon fixation

Algae

43

Can only be seen with an electron microscope
Particle
Either Dna or rna
Can't reproduce as self sufficient units using only cellular machinery of other organisms
Are not considered living because they are inert outside of living hosts

Viruses

44

Eukaryotes
Parasitic worms - flatworms and round worms
Helminths
Microscopic at some stage

Multicellular animal parasites

45

1978
Devised a system of classification for organisms of three domains (bacteria archaea eukaryotes)

Carl woese

46

Cell walls consisting of Peptidoglycan
Prokaryote
Fission do conjugation
Bacilli, Coccus, or spiral
Cilia or flagella
Distinguished by habitat, biochemistry or DNA sequence

Bacteria

47

Cell walls lack Peptidoglycan

Archaea

48

Protists
Fungi
Plants
and animals

Eukarya

49

1665
Little boxes
Cell theory - all living things are made of cells

Robert Hooke*

50

Observed live microorganisms
Between 1673 and 1723 wrote about animalcules (bacteria and Protozoa)

Anton van Leeuwenhoek*

51

1668
Demonstrated that flies did not come from decaying meat (spontaneous generation)
Jars
Air got through mesh screens

Francesco redi*

52

Life could emerge spontaneously from no living matter

Spontaneous generation

53

Spontaneous generation theory strengthened
1745
Mutton broth
Heated solutions used unsterile corks
"Vital force"

John needham*

54

Microorganisms from the air
Countering needham
Conclusions: air transported germs

Lazzaro spallazani*

55

Microorganisms are present in the air and can contaminate sterile solutions but air does not create microorganisms

Curved neck flasks
Filtered Microorganisms Out of the air with cotton
Broth did not decay because the curved neck trapped airborne microorganisms
Broke necks of flask to open air (contamination)
Also demonstrated that microorganisms can be destroyed by heat (Pasteurization)
Beginning of aseptic technique
Fowl cholera loses it's virulence over time
Coined term vaccine

Louis pasteur*

56

1857 thru 1914

Golden age of microbiology

Studied chemical activities of Microorganisms
Techniques for microscopy
Culturing organisms
Development of vaccines
Surgical techniques

57

Microorganisms cause disease

Germ theory of disease

58

English surgeon
Semmelweis
Childbirth
Phenol kills bacteria

Joseph lister

59

Proof disease came from bacteria
1876
Anthrax

Robert Koch
Koch's postulates

60

Cowpox/smallpox
8 yr old volunteer

Edward Jenner

61

Protection from a disease from a vaccine or recovery from the disease itself

Immunity

62

Produced from antivirulent microbial strains or killed microbe

Vaccine

63

Treatment of disease using chemical substances

Chemotherapy

64

Chemicals produced by bacteria or fungus to act against other microorganisms

Antibiotics

65

Chemotherapeutic agents prepared from chemicals in the laboratory

Synthetic drugs

66

Magic bullet hunts down pathogens without destroying the host

Paul erlich

67

Penicillium Chrysogenum
Not until the 1940's

Alexander Fleming

68

Staphylococcus aureus and enterococcus feacalis

Vancomycin resistant

69

Scientific process

Observation hypothesis experimentation analysis conclusion

70

Grouping organisms according to their similarities

Taxonomy

71

Made of rna and protein

Ribosomes

72

Bacilli, cocci, spirilla

Rods, spheres, spirals

73

Strep (chain)
Staph (clusters)
Palisade

Arrangements

74

Diplococci
Tetrads
Sarcinae

Pairs of cocci
Packets of 4
Packets of 8, 16, 32 cells

75

Neisseriae

Bean shaped In Pairs

76

Coccobacilli

Chains?

77

Vibrios

Curved rods

78

Streptococci

Cocci in chains

79

Streptomyces

Mold like fillimentus bacteria

80

Spirochetes

Syphalis

81

Prokaryotes are simpler organisms
Mitochondria and chloroplasts have attributes of living organisms
These organelles have their own dna and are enclosed in a double membrane
These organelles may have been engulfed by a larger cell
(Essay question!)

Endosymbiotic theory

82

Schwann and schleiden*

Found that all plants and animals were made up of cells

83

All life arises from previous life

Biogenesis

84

The study of fungus

Mycology

85

The study of Protozoa and parasitic worms

Parasitology

86

Study of an organisms genes

Genomics

87

Tobacco mosaic virus

Dmitri iwanowski

88

Fragments of human or animal dna can be attached to bacterial dna resulting In a hybrid

Recombinant dna

89

Recombinant dna (rdna) technology

Inserts recombinant Dna into bacteria to make large quantities of a desired protein

90

How genetic information is carried in molecules of dna and how dna directs the synthesis of proteins

Molecular biology

91

Bacteria are less complex
They can be cultivated In large #s
In a short time

Why use bacteria in research

92

The study of the relationship between Microorganisms and the enevironment

Microbial ecology

93

Commercial use of Microorganisms to produce some common foods and chemicals

Biotechnology

94

Inserting a missing gene or replacing a defective gene in human cells

Gene therapy

95

Variety of Microorganisms on and Inside our bodies

Normal microbiota or flora

96

Ability to ward off disease
Interferons (antimicrobial chemicals)

Resistance

97

Complex aggregation of microbes
Protect your mucus membranes from harmful microbes
Often resistant to antibiotics

Biofilm

98

Disease in which a pathogen invades a susceptible host, carries at lease the part of it's life cycle Inside the host

Infectious disease

99

EIDs

Emerging Infectious Diseases

100

MERS

Middle eastern respiratory syndrome

101

SARS

Severe acute respiratory syndrome

102

H1N1

Swine flu (influenza)

103

H5N1

Avian influenza

104

MRSA

Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus

105

VISA

Vancomycin resistant staphylococcus aureus

106

BSE

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy
Mad cow
Like Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (human)

107

Infectious protein

Prion

108

E.coli O157:H7

Bloody diarrhea
Undercooked meat

109

EHF

Ebola hemorrhagic fever
75% die

110

Marberg virus

Another hemorrhagic fever

111

Cryptosporidiosis

Public water supply
Milwaukee
Diarrheal illness

112

What is the identity of this mold?
What other organisms are being affected by this mold?
What is the mold doing to kill the bacteria?

Alexander Fleming's experiments

113

Grouping organisms according to similarities

Taxonomy

114

Discovered by Carl woese
Lack Peptidoglycan
Thermophiles
Halophiles
Methanogens

Archeae

115

Unicellular
Absorb nutrients or engage in parasitism
Motile
Pseudopods (amoeba)

Protozoa

116

Photosynthetic
Autotrophs (carbon fixation)

Algae

117

Found that plants ad animals were made up of individual cells

Schwann and schleiden*

118

All life arises from previous life

Biogenesis