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Flashcards in Chapter 1 - Historical And Modern Perspectives Deck (55):
1

Behaving dysfunctionally

Behaviour interferes with routines, causes significant distress

2

Abnormal behaviour is:

Inconsistent with societal, cultural, and developmental norms.
Interferes with daily functioning.
Causes emotional distress.

3

Vincent Li

2001 began symptoms
July 2008 fired Walmart
July 30, 2008 on Greyhound obeyed auditory hallucinations to do harm - murder
Found not criminally responsible due to schizophrenia
When treated, felt remorse

4

Categorical approach to abnormal behaviour

Do you meet diagnostic criteria?
Downside: symptoms are unique, how much symptom is enough for diagnosis?

5

Dimensional approach to abnormal behaviour

Behaviour is constantly changing
Can be placed on continuum, quantitative criteria vs all or nothing way of thinking

6

Who is most at risk for mental illness?

Poor, low education

7

By 16, what percent children had disorder

36%

8

Factors to consider when addressing abnormal behaviour

Sex, ethnicity, SES, age (chronological vs developmental maturity), education, bio changes (puberty)

9

Developmental trajectory

Symptoms vary by age

10

Downward drift

Impairment as a result of psych disorder

11

Boys vs girls rate of psych as age

Rate decreases as boys enter teens, rate increases as girls enter adolescence

12

Trephination

Create hole in skull to release evil spirits (Egypt)

13

Hippocrates 460-377 BC father of medicine

First to identify hallucinations, delusions, melancholia, hysteria (random blindness), mania.
Most often associated with schizophrenia, somatoform disorders, mood disorders.

14

Hippocrates what contribute to psych

Environment, physical, four humours. Yellow bile, black bile, blood, phlegm.
Remove patients from family.

15

Galen contribution

Discounted wandering womb. Had psychological cause. Hysteria.

16

Middle Ages - renaissance

Influence of church, abnormal behaviour=devil
Witchcraft, mass hysteria
Emotional contagion - automatic mimicry of everything

17

Enlightenment from Middle Ages by who?

Johann Weyer specialized in treatment of mental illness and Paracelsus believed that mental illness could be hereditary (not demons)

18

Nineteenth century moral treatment

Move from asylums to special facilities
More humane treatment
Respect, kindness, religion, vocation

19

Founders of moral treatment

Philippe Pinel, William Tuke, Benjamin Rush, Dorothea Dix, Emil Kraepelin

20

Mental health facilities Canada

Hotel Dieu Quebec 1639
Many converted jails and military barracks in 1800s
Homewood 1883 for wealthy, privately funded so residents had no control

21

How many adults will have suffered from a psych in Canada

1/3

22

SES

Socioeconomic status

23

Psychoanalytic Freud 20th century

Unconscious, environmental factors, parental influence, infancy (first 5 years life), sexual urges

24

Behaviourism 20th century, Pavlov and Watson

Pavlov dogs
Little Albert - noise bunny
Little Peter - noise bunny then desensitized by Jones
Behaviour learned and unlearned

25

Structure of a neuron

Dendrite, soma, axon, synapse, neurotransmitter, receptor

26

Biological models

Biological scarring - disorder changes brain
Hereditary factors
Brain malfunction or structural abnormal
Viral infection theory of fetus
Behavioural genetics

27

Psychoanalysis made by

Freud 1856-1939

28

Psychoanalysis parts of mind

Id (pleasure, unconscious), ego (copes with reality, both un/conscious), superego (moral restraint, guilt, both)

29

Defence mechanisms

In psychoanalysis, used as a way to prevent or cause abnormal behaviour

30

Psychosexual stages of development

Oral, anal, phallic (mastubration 3-5 love parent), latency (ew boys), genital (mature stage)
Become fixated at stage of age of negative experience

31

Psychoanalysis treatment

Dream analysis, interpretation, free association, insight (bring unconscious material to conscious), catharsis (releasing psychic energy)

32

Carl Jung

Modern psychoanalytic, developed analytical therapy
Believed behavioural motivators are psychological and spiritual vs sexual (Freud)

33

Alfred Adler

Modern psychoanalytic, development of individual psychology
Sibling rivalry, birth order, inferiority complex.

34

Contemporary models of psychoanalysis:

Ego psychology (increased focus on conscious motivations)
Object relations theory (emotional relations with objects)

35

Behavioural psychological model

We are products and producers of our environment, behaviours are learned, sometimes maladaptive as a source of coping

36

Vicarious conditioning

Learning by observing another person

37

Behaviour is learned by (behavioural theory)

Social learning, operant conditioning, reinforcement, punishment

38

Cognitive psychological model

Aaron Beck (1921-)
Perception is our reality, how we perceive influence how we act, think, and feel
Cognitive behavioural therapy

39

Beck view on depression

Three distorted views: negative view of self, world, future

40

Cognitive treatment

Based on changing these distorted thoughts through behavioural experiments and talk therapy

41

Cog distortions:
Mental filtering
Reasoning emotionally
Mislabelling

Just choosing the bad
Feel bad, is bad
Did bad, I am horrible

42

Humanistic psychological model

Carl Rogers (1902-1987)
Abnormal behaviour originates when self image and actual self are incongruent, limits ability to achieve full potential

43

Phenomenology

One's worldview is more important than actual world

44

Client-centred therapy (humanistic)

Genuineness, empathic understanding, unconditional positive regard.

45

Biopsychosocial model

Examines all factors, systemic approach, different factors contribute to the illness as a whole.

46

Diathesis stress model

Diathesis is bio or psych vulnerability
Stress is environmental factors
Combine to make distress/dysfunction results in psych disorder

47

Is behaviour truly abnormal?

Does it cause impairment and distress impacting functioning?

48

Scientist-practitioner approach

Look at the science and theories behind it, conduct research to guide and improve psychology

49

Goodness of fit

Understanding behaviour in specific context

50

DSM-V

Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders fifth edition
Uses categorical approach

51

Etiology

Cause

52

Dementia praecox

Schizophrenia first identified by Kraepelin

53

Operant conditioning

Behaviour changed by events happen afterward (punishment and reinforcement)

54

What percentage Canadians meet criteria for substance abuse

20%

55

First person to adopt occupational therapy

Pinel