Flashcards in Chapter 1 - Historical And Modern Perspectives Deck (55):
Behaviour interferes with routines, causes significant distress
Abnormal behaviour is:
Inconsistent with societal, cultural, and developmental norms.
Interferes with daily functioning.
Causes emotional distress.
2001 began symptoms
July 2008 fired Walmart
July 30, 2008 on Greyhound obeyed auditory hallucinations to do harm - murder
Found not criminally responsible due to schizophrenia
When treated, felt remorse
Categorical approach to abnormal behaviour
Do you meet diagnostic criteria?
Downside: symptoms are unique, how much symptom is enough for diagnosis?
Dimensional approach to abnormal behaviour
Behaviour is constantly changing
Can be placed on continuum, quantitative criteria vs all or nothing way of thinking
Who is most at risk for mental illness?
Poor, low education
By 16, what percent children had disorder
Factors to consider when addressing abnormal behaviour
Sex, ethnicity, SES, age (chronological vs developmental maturity), education, bio changes (puberty)
Symptoms vary by age
Impairment as a result of psych disorder
Boys vs girls rate of psych as age
Rate decreases as boys enter teens, rate increases as girls enter adolescence
Create hole in skull to release evil spirits (Egypt)
Hippocrates 460-377 BC father of medicine
First to identify hallucinations, delusions, melancholia, hysteria (random blindness), mania.
Most often associated with schizophrenia, somatoform disorders, mood disorders.
Hippocrates what contribute to psych
Environment, physical, four humours. Yellow bile, black bile, blood, phlegm.
Remove patients from family.
Discounted wandering womb. Had psychological cause. Hysteria.
Middle Ages - renaissance
Influence of church, abnormal behaviour=devil
Witchcraft, mass hysteria
Emotional contagion - automatic mimicry of everything
Enlightenment from Middle Ages by who?
Johann Weyer specialized in treatment of mental illness and Paracelsus believed that mental illness could be hereditary (not demons)
Nineteenth century moral treatment
Move from asylums to special facilities
More humane treatment
Respect, kindness, religion, vocation
Founders of moral treatment
Philippe Pinel, William Tuke, Benjamin Rush, Dorothea Dix, Emil Kraepelin
Mental health facilities Canada
Hotel Dieu Quebec 1639
Many converted jails and military barracks in 1800s
Homewood 1883 for wealthy, privately funded so residents had no control
How many adults will have suffered from a psych in Canada
Psychoanalytic Freud 20th century
Unconscious, environmental factors, parental influence, infancy (first 5 years life), sexual urges
Behaviourism 20th century, Pavlov and Watson
Little Albert - noise bunny
Little Peter - noise bunny then desensitized by Jones
Behaviour learned and unlearned
Structure of a neuron
Dendrite, soma, axon, synapse, neurotransmitter, receptor
Biological scarring - disorder changes brain
Brain malfunction or structural abnormal
Viral infection theory of fetus
Psychoanalysis made by
Psychoanalysis parts of mind
Id (pleasure, unconscious), ego (copes with reality, both un/conscious), superego (moral restraint, guilt, both)
In psychoanalysis, used as a way to prevent or cause abnormal behaviour
Psychosexual stages of development
Oral, anal, phallic (mastubration 3-5 love parent), latency (ew boys), genital (mature stage)
Become fixated at stage of age of negative experience
Dream analysis, interpretation, free association, insight (bring unconscious material to conscious), catharsis (releasing psychic energy)
Modern psychoanalytic, developed analytical therapy
Believed behavioural motivators are psychological and spiritual vs sexual (Freud)
Modern psychoanalytic, development of individual psychology
Sibling rivalry, birth order, inferiority complex.
Contemporary models of psychoanalysis:
Ego psychology (increased focus on conscious motivations)
Object relations theory (emotional relations with objects)
Behavioural psychological model
We are products and producers of our environment, behaviours are learned, sometimes maladaptive as a source of coping
Learning by observing another person
Behaviour is learned by (behavioural theory)
Social learning, operant conditioning, reinforcement, punishment
Cognitive psychological model
Aaron Beck (1921-)
Perception is our reality, how we perceive influence how we act, think, and feel
Cognitive behavioural therapy
Beck view on depression
Three distorted views: negative view of self, world, future
Based on changing these distorted thoughts through behavioural experiments and talk therapy
Just choosing the bad
Feel bad, is bad
Did bad, I am horrible
Humanistic psychological model
Carl Rogers (1902-1987)
Abnormal behaviour originates when self image and actual self are incongruent, limits ability to achieve full potential
One's worldview is more important than actual world
Client-centred therapy (humanistic)
Genuineness, empathic understanding, unconditional positive regard.
Examines all factors, systemic approach, different factors contribute to the illness as a whole.
Diathesis stress model
Diathesis is bio or psych vulnerability
Stress is environmental factors
Combine to make distress/dysfunction results in psych disorder
Is behaviour truly abnormal?
Does it cause impairment and distress impacting functioning?
Look at the science and theories behind it, conduct research to guide and improve psychology
Goodness of fit
Understanding behaviour in specific context
Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders fifth edition
Uses categorical approach
Schizophrenia first identified by Kraepelin
Behaviour changed by events happen afterward (punishment and reinforcement)
What percentage Canadians meet criteria for substance abuse