Flashcards in Chapter 1: Intro To Perception Deck (33):
What is the cycle of perception?
Stimulus, Electricity, Experience and action. (Knowledge as well)
Steps of perception?
1. Environmental stimulus
2. Attended stimulus
3. Stimulus on the receptors
What is attended stimuli?
The stimuli you are currently focused on
What is environment stimuli?
All the things in enviornment we can perceive
What is transduction?
Transformation of one energy to another. E.g. : electrical signals from receptors which transform energy from environment into electrical signals in nervous system
What is transmission?
Signals after being transformed activate other neurons, which activate other neurons, eventually reach the brain from eye
What is processing?
Electrical signals transferred to the brain from retina and undergo neural processing
What is neural processing?
Involves interactions between neurons
What is perception?
A conscious sensory experience. Electric signals represent an object/environment which translate to your brain & tells you about object
Ability to place object in category that gives it meaning
What is bottom-up processing?
Processing by incoming data. Based solely on data available through senses. Example: feels soft & i can see it has four legs = cat
Using cognition to determine thing from perceptual info. Ex: i remember learning of cats, looks like cat so therefore = cat
What is visual form agnosia?
Inability to recognize objects (by tumour)
What is PP and what does it mean?
Psychophysical approach to perception. The stimulus-perception relationship. Ex: measuring the stimulus-perception relationship by asking an observer to identify between two similiar colours
What is PH1 and what does it mean?
The physiological approach to perception. The stimuli-physiological relationship. Ex. How different coloured lights result in electrical activity generation neurons in cat’s cortex
What is PH2 and what does it mean?
The physiological-perception relationship. Ex: person’s brain activity is measured as the person describes the colour of an object they see
Qualitative methods and what they do?
Describing: indicating characteristics of a stimulus
Recognizing: placing stim in specific category
Quantitative methods and what they do?
Detecting: become aware of barely noticable aspect of stim
Perceiving magnitude: being aware of size or intensity of stimulus
Searching: looking for a specific stim among # of other stim
What is the phenomenological method?
When a researcher asks someone to describe what they are perceiving or to indicate when a particular perception occurs
What is absolute threshold?
Smallest amount of stimulus energy necessary to detect a stimulus
What is the method of limits?
Experimenter presents stimuli in either ascending order(intensity is increased) or descending order
What is cross over point?
Threshold is point of detection
What is the method of adjustment?
Observer or the experimenter adjusts the stimulus intensity continously until patient can barely detect stimulus
Method of constant stimuli?
Experimenter presents 5-9 stimuli with different intensities in random order
Threshold is the intensity that results in detection 50% of trials
The difference threshold?
Smallest difference between two stimuli that a person can detect
Weber’s Law formula?
K- weber fraction/constant
S- value of standard stim
DL- difference threshold
What is magnitude estimation?
Scaling of magnitude. Stimuli are above threshold, observer is given a standard stimuli and a value for its intensity. Used to compare to other stimuli that can than be assigned values.
Types of responders?
Liberal responder: responds yes too eagerly
Conservative responder: responds yes only if they are sure stimuli is there
What is response compression?
When intensity increases as well as perceived magnitude but not as rapidly as intensity
What is response expansion?
Intensity is increased & perceived magnitude; perceived magnitude increases more rapidly
What is Steven’s Power Law?
P- perceived magnitude
S- stimulus intensity
^n- power(how perceived magnitude changes as a function of stimulus intensity)
What is visual search?
Observers look for one stimulus in a set of many