Chapter 1 - Introducing The World Of Psychology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1 - Introducing The World Of Psychology Deck (35):
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Psychology

The study of mental activity, The brain and behavior

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Critical thinking

Systematically evaluating information to reach reasonable conclusions best supported by evidence

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What is psychology good for?

Helps improve critical thinking, study skills and skills to better jobs

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Nature vs. nurture

Nature is the psychological tendencies born in an individual, nurture is the tendencies brought out in people through environment. Both have influence

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Mind/body problem

A question debating whether the mind and body are separate or connected

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Operational definitions

Specific definitions of variables

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Behavior

Can be observed and recorded

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Mental processes

Subjective expirences

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The 1st Psychology experiment

Wilhelm Wundt, 1879. A sound was made and subject had to hit a table

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William James

Author of ‘The Principles of Psychology’ and a philosopher

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Biopsychosocial

How biology, psychology, and social and culture influence effect people and their decisions

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Dualism

The mind and body are separate, yet intertwined

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Structuralism

An early school of psychology that explored the structures of the mind through introspection

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Functionalism

And early school of thought concerned with the adaptive purpose, or function, of mind and behavior

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Psychoanalytic theory

Understanding how unconscious thoughts cause psychological disorders

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Gestalt psychology

The ideas of the whole of personal experience is different from simply the sum of its parts

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Behaviorism

A school of thought that emphasizes the role of environmental forces in producing behavior

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Humanistic psychology

A school psychology that investigates how people grow to become happier and more fulfilled; it focuses on the basic goodness of people

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Cognitive psychology

The study of how people think, learn, and remember

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Introspection

Reflecting and reporting on the subjects thoughts and personal experiences

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Natural selection

In evolutionary theory, the idea that those who inherit characteristics that help them adapt to their particular environments have a selective advantage over those who do not

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Culture

The beliefs, values, rules, and customs that exist within a group of people who share a common language and environment and that are transmitted through learning from one generation to the next

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Institutional review boards (IRBs)

Groups of people responsible for reviewing proposed research to insure that it meets the accepted standards of science and provides for the physical and emotional well-being of research participants

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Scientific method

Systematic procedure of observing and measuring phenomena (observable things) to answer questions about what happens, when it happens, what causes it, and why. This process involves a dynamic interaction between theories, hypotheses, and research methods

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Theory

A model of interconnected ideas or concepts that explains what is observed makes predictions about future events

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Hypothesis

A specific prediction of what should be observed and makes predictions about future events

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Descriptive methods

A research method that provides a systematic and objectives description of what is occurring

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Correlational methods

A research method that examines how variables are naturally related in the real world. The researcher makes no attempt to alter the variables or assign causation between them

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Experimental methods

A research method that tests casual hypotheses by manipulating independent variables and measuring the effects on dependent variables

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Independent variable

In an experiment, the variable that the experimenter manipulates to examine its impact on the dependent variable

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Dependent variable

In an experiment, the variable that is affected by the manipulation of the independent variable

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Control group

In an experiment, comparison group of participants that receives no intervention or receives an intervention that is unrelated to the independent variable being investigated

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Experimental group

An experiment, one or more treatment groups of participants that receive the intervention of the independent variable being investigated

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Random assignment

Placing research participants into the conditions of an experiment in such a way that each participant has an equal chance of being assigned any level of the independent variable

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Random sample

A sample that fairly represents the population because each member of the population had an equal chance of being included