Chapter 1 - Introducing The World Of Psychology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1 - Introducing The World Of Psychology Deck (55):
1

Psychology

The study of mental activity, The brain and behavior

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Critical thinking

Systematically evaluating information to reach reasonable conclusions best supported by evidence

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What is psychology good for?

Helps improve critical thinking, study skills and skills to better jobs

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Nature vs. nurture

Nature is the psychological tendencies born in an individual, nurture is the tendencies brought out in people through environment. Both have influence

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Mind/body problem

A question debating whether the mind and body are separate or connected

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Operational definitions

Specific definitions of variables

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Behavior

Can be observed and recorded

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Mental processes

Subjective expirences

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The 1st Psychology experiment

Wilhelm Wundt, 1879. A sound was made and subject had to hit a table

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William James

Author of ‘The Principles of Psychology’ and a philosopher

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Biopsychosocial

How biology, psychology, and social and culture influence effect people and their decisions

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Dualism

The mind and body are separate, yet intertwined

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Structuralism

An early school of psychology that explored the structures of the mind through introspection

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Functionalism

And early school of thought concerned with the adaptive purpose, or function, of mind and behavior

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Psychoanalytic theory

Understanding how unconscious thoughts cause psychological disorders

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Gestalt psychology

The ideas of the whole of personal experience is different from simply the sum of its parts

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Behaviorism

A school of thought that emphasizes the role of environmental forces in producing behavior

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Humanistic psychology

A school psychology that investigates how people grow to become happier and more fulfilled; it focuses on the basic goodness of people

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Cognitive psychology

The study of how people think, learn, and remember

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Introspection

Reflecting and reporting on the subjects thoughts and personal experiences

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Natural selection

In evolutionary theory, the idea that those who inherit characteristics that help them adapt to their particular environments have a selective advantage over those who do not

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Culture

The beliefs, values, rules, and customs that exist within a group of people who share a common language and environment and that are transmitted through learning from one generation to the next

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Institutional review boards (IRBs)

Groups of people responsible for reviewing proposed research to insure that it meets the accepted standards of science and provides for the physical and emotional well-being of research participants

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Scientific method

Systematic procedure of observing and measuring phenomena (observable things) to answer questions about what happens, when it happens, what causes it, and why. This process involves a dynamic interaction between theories, hypotheses, and research methods

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Theory

A model of interconnected ideas or concepts that explains what is observed makes predictions about future events

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Hypothesis

A specific prediction of what should be observed and makes predictions about future events

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Descriptive methods

A research method that provides a systematic and objectives description of what is occurring

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Correlational methods

A research method that examines how variables are naturally related in the real world. The researcher makes no attempt to alter the variables or assign causation between them

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Experimental methods

A research method that tests casual hypotheses by manipulating independent variables and measuring the effects on dependent variables

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Independent variable

In an experiment, the variable that the experimenter manipulates to examine its impact on the dependent variable

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Dependent variable

In an experiment, the variable that is affected by the manipulation of the independent variable

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Control group

In an experiment, comparison group of participants that receives no intervention or receives an intervention that is unrelated to the independent variable being investigated

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Experimental group

An experiment, one or more treatment groups of participants that receive the intervention of the independent variable being investigated

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Random assignment

Placing research participants into the conditions of an experiment in such a way that each participant has an equal chance of being assigned any level of the independent variable

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Random sample

A sample that fairly represents the population because each member of the population had an equal chance of being included

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Dr. Alvarez studies how the degeneration of nerve cells in the brain might contribute to the development of multiple sclerosis. Dr. Alvarez‘s work best exemplifies the _______ subfield of psychology.

Biological

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According to the concept of “survival of the fittest,”

Organisms that are best adapted to their environment are most likely to survive

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A type of psychologist who studies how people are affected by the presence of others is called a ________ psychologist

Social

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Janice wants to use a descriptive research method to study the behavior of children following the birth of a new brother or sister. She could use any of the following EXCEPT a(n)

Experiment

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Jane Goodall systematically watched and recorded the behavior of chimpanzees and their natural environment. She was conducting

Observational studies

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According to structuralism, the goal of psychology is to

Explore the basic elements of the conscious experience

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Psychological science occurs at which level(s) of analysis?

Individual, biological, social (all of the possible choices are correct)

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Alana has declared psychology as her major. Because of this, Alana will most likely study

Mental activity, behavior, and the brain

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Wilhelm randomly assigns participants to two groups and compares the group that receives a treatment with the group that receives no treatment. The group that gets the treatment is the ______ group

Experimental

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In order to maximize the likelihood that experimental and control groups are similar before any treatment has begun, researchers typically use

Random assignment

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If a researcher was denied permission to conduct a study because participants might suffer harm, that decision would have been made by the

Institutional review board

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The Hawthorne affect refers to changes in behavior associated with

Reactivity

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With respect to the nature/nurture debate, psychologists now believe that _______ is/are important in understanding the mind, brain, and behavior

Both nature and nurture

49

You notice that the more you wear your lucky shirt, the better your mood. What conclusion should you draw from this observation?

There is a correlation between your mood and your lucky shirt

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Dr. Stanley would like to find out whether her study guide helps students perform better on exams. She randomly assigns students to one of two groups: group one receives her study guide and group two receives no study guide. Then, after three weeks, the performance of each student is measured on an exam. What is the dependent variable in the study?

Students‘ performance on the exam

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Functionalism is the school of thought concerned with

The adaptive purposes of the mind and behavior

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Critical thinking is best defined as thinking that

Systematically evaluates information

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Bai is conducting a study on learning. When she manipulates an independent variable, it is possible that some other factor, such as noise in the hall, can affect learning in one of the groups but not in the other. This possibility reflects the presence of

A confound

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If the researcher publicly discussed a participants responses and named to the participant, the researcher would be guilty of violating the ethical principle of

Confidentiality

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The psychologist most closely associated with the school of functionalism is

William James