Chapter 1- Introduction: Biology Today Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1- Introduction: Biology Today Deck (40):
1

Biology

Scientific study of life

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Science

An approach to understanding the natural world that is based on inquiry- a search for information, explanations, and answers to specific questions.

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Discovery science

verifiable observations and measurements. The process of scientific inquiry that focuses on using observations to describe nature.

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Hypothesis driven science

Mostly about explaining nature. Most modern scientific investigations.

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Scientific method

A series of steps that provide a loose guideline for scientific investigations .

Observation
Question
Hypothesis
Prediction
Experiment
Results
Revise/repeat

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Hypothesis

A tentative answer to a question-a proposed explanation for a set of observations.

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Theory

A comprehensive explanation supported by abundant evidence, and it is general enough to spin off many new testable hypotheses. Much broader in scope than a hypothesis.

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Life

Trying to distinguish if something is dead or alive. An object is generally alive if it displays all of the following processes simultaneously:
1-Order 2-Regulation 3-Growth and Development 4-Energy processing 5-Response to the environment 6-Reproduction 7-Evolution.

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Species

A group of organisms that live in the same place and time and have the potential to interbreed with one another in nature to produce healthy offspring.

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Taxonomy

branch of biology concerned with identifying, naming, and classifying species.

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List and describe the seven properties and processes associated with life.

1. Order: all living things exhibit complex but ordered organization, as seen in the structure of a pinecone.
2. Regulation: the environment outside an organism may change drastically, but the organism can adjust its internal environment, keeping it within appropriate limits. When it senses it's body temperature dropping, a lizard can bask on a rock to absorb heat.
3. Growth and development: information carried by DNA controls the pattern of growth and development in all organisms, including the crocodile.
4. Energy processing: organisms take in energy and use it to perform all of life's activities; they emit energy as heat. A cheetah obtains energy by eating it's kill, uses energy to power running and other work, and continuously emits body heat into the environment.
5. Response to the environment: all organisms respond to environmental stimuli. A carnivorous Venus flytrap closes its leaves rapidly in response to the environmental stimulus of an insect touching the plants sensory hairs.
6. Reproduction: organisms reproduce their own kind. Thus, monkeys reproduce only monkeys- never lizards or cheetahs.
7. Evolution: reproduction underlies the capacity of populations to change(evolve) over time. The giant leaf insect has evolved in a way that provides camouflage in its environment. Evolutionary change is a central, unifying phenomenon of all life.

12

List the three Domains of life and identify what characteristics are unique to each domain.

1-Bacteria: have prokaryotic cells( small cells that have no nucleus)
2-Archaea: have prokaryotic cells( small cells that have no nucleus)
3-Eukarya: large and complex cells that contain a nucleus. Contains 3 smaller divisions called kingdoms: differentiated by how food is obtained.
plantae: photosynthesis.
fungi: decomposes, digesting dead organisms and organic waste.
animalia: Ingesting and digesting other organisms.

Protists: single celled such as amoebas or seaweeds.

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Natural selection

A process in which organisms with certain inherited characteristics are more likely to survive and reproduce than the organisms with other characteristics; UNEQUAL REPRODUCTIVE SUCCESS.

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Artificial selection

The purposeful breeding of domesticated plants and animals by humans.

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Genes

Hereditary units of information consisting of specific sequences of DNA passed on from the previous generation.

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Genome

The entire set of genetic information that an organism inherits along with its no coding nucleus acid sequences.

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Evolution

The fundamental principle of life and the core theme that unifies all of biology

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Explain what Darwin meant when he described evolution as "descent with modification"

1. For example, the diversity of beats is based on different modifications of a common ancestor from which all bears descended.
2. In the struggle for existence, those individuals with heritable traits best suited to the local environment are more likely to survive and leave the greatest number of healthy offspring. The traits that enhance survival and reproductive success will be represented in greater numbers in the next generation ect.

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Emergent property

Life is an emergent property that arises from the specific arrangement and interactions of its molecular parts.

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Biosphere

The global ecosystem; the entire portion of the Earth inhabited by life; all of life and where it lives.

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Ecosystem

All the organisms is given area, along with the no living (abiotic) factors with which they interact; a biological community and its physical environment

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Cell

The smallest level of biological organization that can display all the characteristics of life

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Prokaryotic

A prokaryote is a single-celled organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus (karyon), mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.

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Eukaryotic

any cell or organism that possesses a clearly defined nucleus. The eukaryotic cell has a nuclear membrane that surrounds the nucleus, in which the well-defined chromosomes (bodies containing the hereditary material) are located.

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DNA

abbreviation of deoxyribonucleic acid, organic chemical of complex molecular structure that is found in all prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and in many viruses. DNA codes genetic information for the transmission of inherited traits.

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Domain

A taxonomic category above the kingdom level. The three domains are archaea, bacteria, and eukaryotes.

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Kingdom

a taxonomic category, the second broadest after domain

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Protist

any of various one-celled organisms, classified in the kingdom Protista, that are either free-living or aggregated into simple colonies and that have diverse reproductive and nutritional modes, including the protozoans, eukaryotic algae, and slime molds: some classification schemes also include the fungi and the more primitive bacteria and blue-green algae or may distribute the organisms between the kingdoms Plantae and Animalia according to dominant characteristics.

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Controlled experiment

uses controls, usually separating the subjects into one or more control groups and experimental groups.

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Technology

a. The application of science, especially to industrial or commercial objectives.
b. The scientific method and material used to achieve a commercial or industrial objective.

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List And describe the ten levels in the hierarchy of life

1. Biosphere: earths biosphere includes all life and all the places where life exists.
2. Ecosystems: consists of all living organisms in a particular are and all the no living components of the environment with which life interacts, such as soil, water, and light.
3. Communities: all organisms in an ecosystem are collectively called a community.
4. Populations: within communities are various populations, groups of interacting individuals of one species, suck as a group of iguanas.
5. Organisms: an individual living thing.
6. Organ systems and organs; an organisms body consists of several organ systems, each of which contains two or more organs.
7. Tissues: each organ is made of up of different tissues.
8. Cells: the smallest unit that can display all the characteristics of life
9. Organelles: functional components pf cells, such as the nucleus that houses the DNA
10. Molecules and atoms: molecules to atoms,

32

Describe the roles of producers, consumers and decomposes within an ecosystem

Producers: the energy that enters an ecosystem as sunlight is captured by plants and other photosynthetic organisms (producers) that absorb the Suns energy and convert it, storing it as chemical bonds within sugars and other complex molecules.

Consumers: these molecules then become food for a series of consumers, such as animals, that feed on producers. Consumers can use the food as a source of energy by breaking chemical bonds or as building blocks for making molecules needed by the organism- molecules consumed can be used as both a source of energy and a source of matter.

Decomposers: such as fungi and many bacteria, break down waste products and the remains of dead organisms, changing complex me lucked into simple nutrients. The action of Decomposers ensures that nutrients are available to be taken up from the soil by plants again, thereby completing the cycle.

33

Describe the two major processes in an ecosystem and explain the role of organisms in these two processes.

Cycling of nutrients: matter/ nutrients are recycled within an ecosystem. Minerals and plants absorb from the soil can eventually be recycled back into the soil when plants are decomposed by microorganisms by fungi and many bacteria- breakdown wages products and the remains of dead organisms, changing complex molecules into simple nutrients. This action ensures that nutrients are available to be taken up from the soil by plants again, thereby completing the cycle.


Flow of energy from sunlight: energy flows into and then out of an ecosystem. The energy that enters an ecosystem as sunlight is captured by plants and other photosynthetic organisms that absorb the Suns energy and convert it, storing it as chemical bonds within sugars and other complex molecules.

34

Differentiate between a prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell.

Prokaryotic:bacteria and archaea- relatively small and simple cells that lack a nucleus or other compartments bounded by internal membranes.

Eukaryotic: large and complex cells that contain a nucleus and other membrane- enclosed compartments.

35

Explain the two observations which lead to Darwin's theory of natural selection, and explain what is meant by differential (unequal) reproductive success.

Descent with modification: species today descended from a succession of ancestral species.
Diversity of bears is based on different modifications of a common ancestor from which all bears descended.

Natural selection: environment selects only certain heritable traits from those already existing. Serves to edit those changes that have already occurred. Example polar bear and brown bear fur change to each home environment

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Differentiate between natural and artificial selection

Natural selection: environment selects only certain heritable traits from those already existing.

Artificial selection: purposeful breeding of domesticated plants and animals by humans.

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List and define/describe/explain each of these steps in the scientific method.

Observation: making an observation about something that interest you. - the tv remote doesn't work.
Question: formulate a question about what you have observed. - what's wrong with the remote?
Hypothesis: educated guess about the answer to your specific question. Must be testable. - the tv remote doesn't work because it's batteries are dead.
Prediction: if I replace the batteries, the remote will work.
Experiment:design and conduct an experiment that will test your hypothesis. - I replace the batteries with new ones.

38

Explain the difference between the use of the word "theory" in everyday language and the correct, scientific use of the word. Include a discussion of how a hypothesis and a theory are related.

Everyday language use of theory implies untested speculation (it's just a theory!) we use the word theory like a scientist uses the word hypothesis.

Scientific theory is backed up by a wealth of supporting evidence, or else it wouldn't be referred to As a theory. Natural selection qualifies as a scientific theory because of its broad application and because it had been validated by a large number of observations and experiments

They are both testable and falsifiable.
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Domains:
Bacteria, Archaea, & Eukarya

Eukarya: 4 kingdoms: Protista, fungi, plantae, animalia

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Domains:
Bacteria, Archaea, & Eukarya

Eukarya: 4 kingdoms: Protista, fungi, plantae, animalia