^ Chapter 1 - Introduction to Molecular Regulation and Signaling Flashcards Preview

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The promotor region where the RNA polymerase binds, usually contains the sequence...

TATA, and this site is called the TATA box

1

PAX6 transcription factors

- Partisapates in pancreas, eye, and neural tube development
- Contains 3 separate enhancers, each of whoch regulates the gene expression in the appropriate tissue

2

Silencers

Enhancers that inhibit transcription

3

SJEKK om det stemmer med det som staar i boka!!!!
Why is nRNA longer than mRNA?

Because nRNA contains introns that are spliced out (removed)(?)

4

Paracrine interactions

Proteins synthesized by one cell diffuse over short distances to interact with other cells

5

Juxtacrine

Do not involve diffusable proteins

6

Paracrine signaling=

Paracrine factors = Growth and differentiation factors (GDFs)

7

Notch receptor protein binds to:

- delta protein
- serrate protein
- jagged protein

8

The milieu consists of large molecules secreted by cells including:

- collagen
- proteoglycans (chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronic acid)
- glycoproteins (e.g fibronectin and laminin)

9

What forms scaffolds for cell migration?

fibronectin molecules

10

integrins

receptors that link extracellular molecules such as fibronectin and laminin

11

GDFs

- fibroblast growth factor (FGF)
- WNT
- hedgehog
- transforming growth factor-B (TGF-B)

12

FGF

important for
- angiogenesis
- axon growth
- mesoderm differentiation

13

FGF 8

important for development of the limbs and parts of the brain

14

Tyrosin receptor kinases =

fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs

15

What does the hedgehog gene code for?

It codes for a pattern of bristles on the leg of Drosophila

16

the 3 hedgehog genes:

1. Desert
2. Indian
3. Sonic hedgehog

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Sonic hedgehog involve in the developmental events including:

- Limb patterning
- Meutral tube induction and patterning
- Somite differentiation
- Gut regionalization

18

Patched

- Receptor for the hedgehog family
- Binds to a protein called Smoothened

19

How many WNT are they?

15

20

Frizzled family

where the receptor of the WNT belongs to

21

WNT

Involved in regulating:
- Limb patterning
- Midbrain development
- Some aspects of somite and urogenital differentiation among other actions

22

TGF-B

- Bone morphogenic proteins
- Activin family
- Mullerian inhibiting factor (MIF, anti-Mullerian hormone)

23

BMP

Induces bone formation
Involved in regulating cell division, cell death (apoptosis) and cell migration

24

Neurotransmitter

Serotonin
Norepinephrine

25

Norepinephrine

Appears to play a role in apoptosis (programmed cell death) in the interdigital spaces and in other cell types

26

Serotonin (5HT)

Important for establishing laterality, gastrulation, heart development, and other processes during early stages of development