Flashcards in Chapter 1 - Movement Skills Deck (51):
A skill is an ability that comes from knowledge, practice, experience, aptitude, and which can be performed well.
The nature of a skill
The nature of a skill varies depending on the type of movement, the required outcome, and the environment in which the movement is performed.
Types of skills
There are a number of different types of skills, cognitive skills, perceptual skills, movement (motor) skills, and perceptual motor skills.
Skills that require thought processes.
Skills required in the interpretation of presented information.
Movement (motor) skills
A function which involves the precise movement of muscles with the intent to perform a specific act.
Perceptual motor skills
Skills which require the integration of sensory input (visual, auditory, and kinaesthetic) which movement or motor responses.
Fundamental motor skills
Fundamental motor skills are movement patterns that invoke different body parts.
They are foundation skills that provide the basis for the development of more sport-specific movement skills.
Fundamental movement skills universal identification
There is no single list of skills that are universally understood to be fundamental movement skills.
For example, FMS identified in Canadian educational systems include skills performed on snow and ice, whereas other countries such as Australia do not typically include these skills.
Fundamental movement skills identified by the Australian Sports Commission
Object control, locomotive skills, body control, and aquatic skills.
Object control skills
Skills that involve the control of an object.
For example, kicking, throwing, and catching.
Skills that enable movement through space.
For example, running, jumping, and using a wheelchair.
Body control skills
Skills that involve balance and control of the body.
For example, balancing, tumbling, and climbing.
Skills that enable movement through water.
For example, floating, paddling, and early swimming strokes.
Sports-specific skills utilise a range of fundamental movement skills in a sequence of movement.
For example, a kick in AFL Football requires running, balance, control of the ball in the hand and coordination of tee leg muscles to perform the skill.
Successful sport-specific skill execution
Successful skill execution in sports require well-developed fundamental movement skills and a knowledge of the specific requirements and techniques associated with the particular sporting skill.
For example, rebounding in basketball requires the fundamental movement skills of running, jumping, catching, dynamic balance, stopping, and landing.
Classifying movement skills
Skills can be classified according to certain characteristics. Classification is based on the degree of movement precision required, the type of movement performed, and the predictability of the environment in which they are performed.
Precision of movement and the number of muscles or muscle groups involved in the activity.
They are fine and gross motor skills.
Fine motor skills
Delicate precise movements that engage the use of small muscle groups. The performer must balance the use of fire and fine touch control.
For example, typing on a keyboard is predominantly fine touch control, and shooting in archery is predominantly force control.
Gross motor skills
Movements involving the use of large muscle groups that result in a coordinated action.
For example, throwing, kicking, and tumbling in gymnastics.
Combination of fine and gross motor skills
Many sporting activities combine fine and gross motor skills.
For example, spin bowling in cricket requires gross movements in the legs, trunk, shoulders, and arms in the run up and delivery of the ball, and the precise, fine manipulation of the ball by the hand and fingers to add a spin on the ball.
Type of movement
These skills are classified according to the type or phases of movement they involve. They are discrete motor skills, serial motor skills, and continuous motor skills.
Discrete motor skills
Motor skills that involve movements of a brief duration, that are easily defined by a distinct beginning and end.
For example, throwing, kicking, and catching.
Serial motor skills
A series or group of discrete skills strung together to create a more complicated, skilled action. The duration of the activities is prolonged, but each individual movement in the series has a definite beginning and end.
For example, a gymnastics routine, dodging an opponent, and serving in tennis.
Continuous motor skills
Motor skills that have no distinct beginning or end. These movements may continue for several minutes, often involving tracking movements.
For example, swimming, running, and pedalling a bicycle.
Predictability of the environment
This classification is based upon the extent to which the skill is influenced by environmental factors. They are closed motor skills, and open motor skills.
Closed motor skills
Motor skills that are performed in a predictable, self-paced environment.
For example, indoor archery, a free-throw in basketball, and a gymnastics vault.
Open motor skills
Motor skills that are performed in an environment that is constantly changing and is externally paced.
For example, the changing proximity of an opponent, the changing speed and height of a wave in surfing, and the varying speed of a ball in hockey.
Stages of skill learning model
The most widely recognised and used model that categorised motor skill learning is the Fitts and Posner model, developed in 1967. The model divides motor skill learning into three distinct stages: cognitive stage, associative stage, and the autonomous stage.
The initial phase in the learning of a motor skill, where the emphasis is on conscious understanding of the task requirements.
The second phase in the learning of a new skill, in which movement patterns become more refined and consistent through practice.
The final phase in the learning of a new skill, where the skill is largely automatic, and the performer no longer consciously thinks about the skill.
Factors related to the individual, task, and environment that influence movement.
Newell’s model of movement constraints
Newell’s model of movement constraints is often used to explain the individual differences in movement patterns and skill development as a tool to assist plays to improve performance.
There are three main factors that influence a movement: individual constraints, task constraints, and environmental constraints.
Individual constraints are the physical, psychological, and behaviour characteristics that influence movement.
They can be categorised as either structural or functional constraints.
Structural constraints relate to the body structure of the individual.
Functional constraints relate to human behaviours.
Task-related constraints explain the ‘goal’, rules, equipment, and facilities of a sport.
Environmental constraints are characteristics of the environment in which the performance takes place as well as the social factors surrounding an individual.
These constraints can be categorised as physical or social/ cultural environment.
Applications of Newell’s model of constraints
Newell’s model of constraints can be applied to coaches, physical education teachers, and athletes.
An enabler is something or someone that has a positive effect on one’s movement skills.
A barrier is something or someone that has a negative effect on one’s motor skills.
Familiar advantage is the term used to explain the influence that parents and/ or siblings can have in motor skill development.
Qualitative analysis is the systematic observation of the quality of human movement for the purpose of providing the most appropriate intervention to improve performance.
Qualitative movement analysis has four main principles: preparation, observation, evaluation, and error correction.
Determine the purpose of the analysis.
The skill is recorded or measured either by watching the performer or through digital recording.
The information gathered during the preparation and observation stages are used to identify errors in performance and identify a positive area of performance.
The analyst can use the information from the evaluation phase (strengths and weaknesses) to improve player performance.
The analyst can use various methods to provide feedback such as verbal feedback, modify practice, and a visual model.
Verbal feedback is used to provide knowledge of performance about how to improve technique.
Modifying practice occurs when a task or skill is broken down, with less focus on the outcome and more on technique, in a closed environment.