Chapter 1 - Muscular, Neuro and Cardio Systems Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1 - Muscular, Neuro and Cardio Systems Deck (53):
1

Bundles of Muscle Fibers

Fasciculi

2

outer most layer of connective tissue that encloses the entire muscle

Epimysium

3

Tissue covering the outside of fiber bundles

perimysium

4

connective tissue surrounding each muscle fiber

Endomysium

5

the cell membrane of a single muscle fiber

sarcolemma

6

other name for motor end plate

neuromuscular junction

7

a motor neuron and the muscle fibers it innervates

motor unit

8

thick filaments

myosin

9

# of myosin molecules in a myosin filament

~200

10

thin filaments of two strands in a double helix that interact with myosin

actin

11

# of actin filaments that surround each myosin filament

6

12

# of of myosin filaments that surround each actin filament

3

13

The band that corresponds with the alignment of myosin filaments

A-band

14

band that contains the actin filaments

I-band

15

Area in the center of the sarcomere where only myosin filaments are present

H-zone

16

tubules surrounding each myofibril

sarcoplasmic reticulum

17

area in the middle of the i band that appears as a thin black line

z-line

18

in a stretched muscle, the I bands and h-zone _____________. and there is _______force potential due to the reduced cross bridge alignment

elongate; low

19

troponin is situated along ________ filaments

actin

20

a protein that has a high affinity for calcium ions and is situated in intervals on the actin filaments is ________.

troponin

21

protein that runs along the actin filament in the groove of the double helix.

tropomyosin

22

fusing of high frequency muscles twitches

tetanus

23

kinesthesis

position of body parts with respect to gravity

24

modified muscle fibers that are part of a muscle spindle that run parallel to the normal, or extrafusal fibers.

intrafusal fibers

25

example of a muscle spindle test

knee jerk test

26

example of GTO reflex

PNF stretches

27

reduced muscle size and strength

sarcopenia

28

loss of function in older sedentary individuals is seen most prevalent in which muscles?

weight bearing extensors (lower limb and trunk extensors)

29

what area of the body does the right side of the heart pump blood?

through the lungs

30

what parts of the body does the left side of the heart pump blood to?

everywhere but the lungs.

31

each heart pump has two chambers _______and _______

atrium and ventricles

32

other name for the AV valves

tricuspid and mitral ( bicuspid) valves

33

ventricular contraction also known as________.

systole

34

other name for the semilunar valves

aortic and pulmonary valve

35

role of semilunar valves

prevent backflow from aorta and pulm arteries into ventricles during relaxation.

36

ventricular relaxation

diastole

37

role of the AV valves

prevent blood from flowing from ventricles into atria during contraction.

38

pacemaker of the heart

SA (sinoatrial node)

39

heart conduction order

AV Bundle
AV node
left and right bundle branches
SA node
internodal pathways from SA node to AV

SA node > Internodal path > AV node > AV bundle > left and right branches

40

Subsections of each individual muscle fiber are also known as __________.

myofibril

41

Subsections of each myofibril are called _________.

myofilaments

42

The smallest unit of measure of skeletal muscle anatomy is called a _______.

sarcomere

43

during contraction, the I-Bands and H-zone are _________.

shortened

44

The P-wave and QRS wave are all parts of the _______ phase.

depolarization phase

45

The T-wave is symbolic of _________.

Repolarizaion

46

The size of these areas of the myofibril decrease during a contraction phase:

I-band, H-zone

47

T-tubules run ________ in relation to the sarcoplasmic reticulum and terminate around the point of the _________.

perpendicular; z-line

48

The parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems are both part of the __________ nervous system.

autonomic nervous system

49

parasympathetic fiber stimulation results in a(n) __________ in heart rate.

decrease

50

sympathetic fiber stimulation results in a(n) __________ in heart rate.

increase

51

arteries and arterioles carry blood _______ the heart

away from

52

veins and venules carry blood _________ the heart

towards the heart

53

Which of the following events occurs in the hamstring muscles during the concentric muscle actin of the leg curl exercise?

chloride ions are released inside the muscle fiber

each sarcomere is stimulated by a motor neuron

the actin cross bridges attach to the myosin filaments

the H-zone decreases as the z-lines are pulled toward each other.

the H-zone decreases as the z-lines are pulled toward each other