Flashcards in Chapter 1 part 2-3 Deck (49):
Why did Natives trade?
They traded based on necessity and wants
What resources did they use to satisfy their needs and wants?
The available resources.
What is barter?
Trade of one good for another good.
Where did barter take place?
At trading centres.
Where were trading post most often found?
Where 2 rivers would meet (confluence).
How we’re trading networks spaced out on the territory? Were there many trading posts?
They were vast and spanned the continent.
What was the most used way to perform transportation?
What were the two importances of trade?
To satisfy needs (I.e. have access to ressources that we’re not available in their territory) and to establish alliances (I.e ensure diplomatic ties between tribes and form military and political partners because they were trading partners).
What are Wampum belts?
They are belts that hold a specific meaning due to the symbols, colours and patterns that were used. They were most used for diplomatic matters, for example when a chief would present a proposal if the other accepted it they would take the belt and have a person mesmerize its meaning and use it as proof of their agreement.
What was the nature of alliances?
They were flexible and could end due to disagreements about trade or territory.
Tensions and rivalries would sometimes lead to what?
How did goods circulate?
Through trading centres.
Why did the Natives establish systems of alliances?
They did this so they could have peace, benefit economically, defend each other, maintain political relation, defend their interests, fight a common enemy or conduct trade.
What was the fate of prisoners for the Natives?
They were either tortured or adopted by a family to replace a deceased family member (particularly for the Iroquois).
When did the Europeans first start going to North America?
During the 16th and 17th century.
What allowed the Europeans to travel farther than they ever have before?
New knowledge and technologie.
What were the main objectives of French expeditions?
- Find a maritime route to Asia
- Create a colonial empire to become more powerful than other Europeans
- Find precious metals to increase wealth
- Evangelize Natives
By the late 17th century, all of Americas were owned by powerful European nations. Which were the main ones?
Spain, France, England and Portugal.
Why did the Europeans finance expeditions of exploration?
So they could find Asia.
Name the 3 first major explorers of North America and where they came from.
Christopher Columbus from Spain, John Cabot from England, Giovanni da Verrazano from France.
When did the Europeans first come to North America? Why?
They came in the early 16th century to fish along Atlantic shores in the Gulf of the St. Lawrence.
Why did the Europeans finance expeditions of exploration?
To find Asia.
Who were the most active fishermen in this region? What were they called and where did they come from?
The Basques from Northern Spain and the Normans from Northern France.
What fishing technique did the fishermen use when fishing? This led to what?
They performed dry fishing which is salting and drying the fish they caught on the shore or they would melt the blubber of whales for oil. This led them to come in contact with Native hunters but without settling on the territory.
Which time, did the Natives and the Europeans establish trade relations and engage in barter?
What did the Natives trade with the Europeans? What did the Europeans trade withe the Natives?
Natives: Fish and fur.
Europeans: Knives, pots, glass beads, axes, and clothing.
What did the fisherman realize was more profitable than fish?
Why was fur so popular among the Europeans?
It was popular because felt hats made with beaver fur was in fashion at the time.
How did the Natives benefit from the barter they performed with the Europeans?
They benefited by using the tools they received to make their daily lives easier.
What did certain Nations do in order to participate in barter with the Europeans?
They would modify their subsistence activities so they could barter with the Europeans.
What did trading alliances with the Europeans cause in alliances between tribes?
It caused a disruption. There would be new conflicts due to the fact that the nations that traded directly with the Europeans had an advantage because they became intermediaries for other nations. This would lead to intensified rivalries that would sometimes lead to armed conflict.
How did trade with the Europeans affect the environment?
Animals with fur, particulate the beaver, were increasingly hunted in certain regions, causing them to become more scarce.
Who was the first European to sail, describe and map the St. Lawrence River? In what year?
Jaque Cartier in 1534.
How many voyages did Jaques Cartier do?
What prompted France to regain interest in North America at the end of the 16th century?
Where did France try to establish colonies? What were their names?
In Nova Scotia called Sable Island, Île Sainte-Croix and the Fort of Port-Royal.
Did these colonies fail or succeed? If they failed, why did they fail?
They failed because of the lack of supplies they had and the winters were horrible for them.
Where was the first trading post done by the French placed? During what year?
In Tadoussac in 1600.
How were the French able to settle around the St. Lawrence? With the help of whom?
The Natives helped the French with the fur trade.
Who accepted an alliance with the French in Tadoussac? During what year?
With a few Algonquian tribes in 1603.
What did the alliance in Tadoussac mean for the nations that participated in it?
It ensured a supply European goods and a military partnership against enemy nations and also allowed them to become intermediaries with the French and other nations.
What did the alliance in Tadoussac mean to the French?
It allowed the French to settle in the territory and ensured a supply of fur.
Who does not ally with the French? What does this lead to?
The Iroquois which leads to conflict.
What motivated the Algonquian tribes to form and alliance with the French?
Since they could easily hunt for beaver, they could also easily acquire European goods.
What connection can you make between the confluence of two waterways and trade?
Trade took place at the confluence of two waterways.
What qualities did Native warriors demonstrate during war?
Courage and bravery.
What year di Christopher Columbus cross the Atlantic to reach the Americas?
What connection can you make between the location of the trading post at Tadoussac and its importance in the fur trade?
The position was at a confluence of two waterways and was at the heart of a territory rich with furs which made it possible to centralize trade with Native peoples.