Chapter 1: Political Thinking and Political Culture: Becoming a Responsible Citizen Flashcards Preview

PSCI 203 > Chapter 1: Political Thinking and Political Culture: Becoming a Responsible Citizen > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 1: Political Thinking and Political Culture: Becoming a Responsible Citizen Deck (28):
1

What is the term for the systematic study of government and politics?

political science

2

What is the term for the widely shared and deep-seated beliefs of its people about politics?

political culture

3

During what period did the first white settlers arrive?

the Enlightenment period

4

What are America's core political ideals?

Liberty
Individualism
Equality
Self-government

5

Define liberty.

the principles that individuals should be free to act and think as they choose, provide they do not infringe unreasonably on the freedom and well-being of others.

6

Political scientist Louis Hartz said what about America?

it was "born free"

7

The preamble to the constitution declares that the US government was founded to secure what?

"the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity"

8

Define individualism.

a commitment to personal initiative and self-sufficiency.

9

Define equality.

the notion that all individuals are equal in their moral worth and thereby entitled to equal treatment under the law.

10

Define self-government.

the principle that the people are the ultimate source of governing authority and should have a voice in their governing.

11

Politics is...

...the means by which society settles its conflicts and allocates the resulting benefits and costs.

12

Those who prevail in political conflicts are said to have power. Define power.

It is the term that refers to the ability of persons, groups, or institutions to influence political developments.

13

Define these systems.
Democratic:
Constitutional:
Free market:

Democratic: a system of majority rule through elections.
Constitutional: a system based on rule of law, including legal protections for individuals.
Free market: an economics system that centers on the transactions between private parties.

14

Name the implications of the democratic system and define them.

majoritarianism: empowers majorities
pluralism: empowers groups (special groups)
officials: empowers officials

15

Name the implications of the constitutional system and define them.

legal action: empowers individuals by enabling them to claim their rights in court

16

Name the implications of the free market system and define them.

corporate power: empowers business firms
elitism: empowers wealthy

17

What is an authoritarian government?

one that openly represses its political opponents, mostly through intimidations and prohibitions on free expression but sometimes by brutalizing or imprisoning opposition leaders.

18

Democracy:
Oligarchy:
Autocracy:

Democracy: people govern directly or through elected representatives.
Oligarchy: control rests in a small group; military, wealthy families, etc.
Autocracy: control rests in a single individual; king or dictator.

19

Define authority.

the recognized right of officials to exercise power.

20

What is party polarization?

the name given to today's party politics; conflict between America's major two parties has become bitter and prolonged.

21

What is constitutionalism?

the idea that there are lawful restrictions on government's power.

22

Socialism:

Government does not attempt to manage the overall economy, but owns a number of major industries and guarantees every individual a minimal standard of living.
(Sweden and other countries)

23

What system operates mainly on private transactions?

free-market system

24

What operates in part through the influence that firms have with government officials?

corporate power

25

3 branches of government:
Explain each.

Executive = president
Legislative = Congress
Judicial = Supreme Court

26

Who makes the laws (at the federal level) in society?

Congress writes/makes them
President enforces them

27

What is the name of the concept/idea of a society without a government?

State of nature

28

Rule by one:
Rule by few:
Rule by many:

one: royalty
few: aristocracy
many: democracy