Chapter 1 - Public Speaking, A Long Tradition Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1 - Public Speaking, A Long Tradition Deck (23):
1

Sophists

1) Itinerant teachers who traveled from a city-state to city-state in classical Greece, training people in public speaking
2) Gorgias - linear realtionship between audience and speaker
3) Protagoras - taught students to learn arguments for and against opinons

2

Isocrates

1) good speakers were learned in a variety of subjects
2) has ethical and moral standards
3) Only constraint to to good speeches is kairos--timing and recognition of the needs of the occasion.

3

Plato

1) opposed sophist views
2) rhetoric as flattery, persuasion
3) philosophy as search for truth

4

Aristotle's Three Types of Knowledge

1) three types of knowledge
techne- experiential (least reliable)
Episteme - universal knowledge, from ed/exploration
Intermediate - what is intuitively corrrect
2) Saw much more use for speech in civil society than plato

5

Aristotle's Four Functions of Rhetoric

1) Uphold truth and justice - in courtroom, leg, etc. truth must be advocated for to win out
2) Teaching to an audience - classroom.
3) analyzing both sides of a question - jury, voting. (sim to protagoras)
4) defending oneself - disagreement
Rhetoric as imp tools for civic society

6

Aristotle's Components of Persuasion / artistic proof

1) ethos - credibility - intellectual, moral , social
good sense - knowledgeable
good moral character - honest and trustorthy
good will - speaker respects and cares
2) Logos - logical or rational appeal
message, content, structure, style
3) Pathos - emotional appeal
values, interests, feelings
4) created for the occasion
5) ethos, logos, and pathos refer to speaker, message, and audience and interact with one another to form the message

7

Aristotle's Three Virtues of Style

1) Clarity - ability of the speakers to clearly articulate what they wish to say, simple and direct sentences
2) Correctness - accuracy of the information presented and the honest representation of the speaker (tied to ethics)
3) Propriety - Good behavior and faithfulness to what one considers moral and just (encompasses clarity and correctness)

8

Cicero

1) valued all uses of rhetoric (Unlike Quintilian)
2) Five Canons of Rhetoric - broke speech down into components

9

Inartistic Proof (Aristotle)

1) all the evidence, data, and documents that exist outside of the speaker and the audience, but can still aid in persuasion (no ethos, logos or pathos - artistic proof)

10

Cicero's Five Canon's of Rhetoric

1) Invention - selecting and performing an investigative research on a given topic
2) Arrangement - process of devising an effective structure, or arrangement for the speech
3) Style - designing specifics of the speech, including word choice, sentence structure, and possible presentation aids to convey a message
4) Memory - learning your material well enough to be able to move on to be able to deliver the speech without extensive use of notes
5) Delivery - the manner with which a speaker physically and vocally presents the speech

11

Invention (Cicero's First Canon)

1) selecting and performing an investigative research on a given topic
2) narrowing possibilities into a specific purpos
3) apply certain topoi (themes) to the subject

12

Arrangement (Cicero's Second Canon)

1) process of devising an effective structure, or arrangement for the speech
2) Two parts
a) overall structure
b) organization of argument
3) info speech --> intro, body, conclusion

13

Style (Cicero's Third Canon)

1) designing specifics of the speech, including word choice, sentence structure, and possible presentation aids to convey a message
2) generally should posses four virtues of language
- clarity
- correctness (grammatically and rhetorically)
- vividness (aestthetic quality, figures of speech)
- Appropriateness ( aptly fit to subject matter)

14

Memory (Cicero's Fourth Canon)

1) learning your material well enough to be able to move on to be able to deliver the speech without extensive use of notes
2) only requires memorization if used in formal style
3) if extemporaneous - attention getter, thesis, and conclusion should be memorized

15

Delivery (Cicero's Fifth Canon)

1) the manner with which a speaker physically and vocally presents the speech
2) see chp 4

16

Quintilian Rhetoric

1) focused on epideictic address (focuses on praise or blame)
2) Defined rhetoric as "the art of speaking well"
3) only useful as applied to pracitcla and public affairs
4) Five principle duties for any speaker
- defend the truth
- protect the innocent
- prevent criminal behavior
- inspire the military
- inspre the public
5) outgrowth of Aristotle's four functions of rhetoric

17

Linear Model of Communication (Shannon-Weaver)

1) Sender - person who desires to deliver a message to another person of group using a symbol system (usually language)
2) Encoding - process of attaching symbols to ideas and feelings so that others may understand them
3) Message --> actual content sent to an audience (intentional and unintentional)
4) Channel - the mode through which the message is conveyed to another party
5) Noise - anything that interferes with this encoding, transmission , or reception of the message
6) Receiver - person(s) who receive the encoded message sent by the sender
7) decoding - process of taking a sent message and using one's own experience and knowledge to give it meaning
8) A sender encodes a message and send it through a channel where it competes with distracting forces called noise on its way to a receiver who then decodes the message
9) p.16

18

Transactional Model of Communication

1) recognizes that we simultaneously send and receive messages; a cyclical model of the communication process
2) adds eighth component to linear model: feedback
- the responses and reactions to the messages transmitted by the new sender; is itself a new message sent back to the original sender
3) Communication as ongoing process

19

Civic Engagement

1) example of public speaking's use
2) acting upon a sharp awareness of one's own sense of responsibility to one's community

20

Active Listening

1) Sensing - hearing, seeing
2) Attending - focusing, keying
3) Understanding - decoding meaning

21

Types of Conclusions

1) crescendo - big finish
2) diminsih - fade
3) circular - revisit intro

22

Types of Speech Body

1) chronological
2) Spatial - geo
3) Causal
4) Topical

23

Rhetoric (DEF)

1) The art and study of human discourse for the purpose of adducing useful precepts for future discourse
2) Def by James J. Murphy and used by Shubb in Lecture