Chapter 1 - Review of General Chemistry Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1 - Review of General Chemistry Deck (63):
1

constitutional isomers

compounds with the same molecular formula that differ in connection, yielding different physical properties and different names.

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2

Valent

tetra- , tri- , di- , mono-

Tendency to form a certain number of bonds.

terta- = four

tri- = three

di- = two

mono- = one

3

covalent bond

Bond resulting due to two atoms sharing a pair of electrons.

4

What are the 3 forces to account for when atoms approach each other?

1) the force of repulsion between the two negatively charged electrons

2) the force of repulsion between the two positively charged nuclei

3) the forces of attraction between the positively charged nuclei and the negatively charged electrons 

5

1Å = ___ m

10-10

6

octet rule

Tendency of atoms to form the necessary number of bonds in order to reach a full outer shell.

7

lone pair

pair of unshared electrons

8

formal charge

charge associated with any atom that does not exhibit the appropriate number of valence electrons.

9

What are the two tasks in identifying a formal charge?

1) Determine the appropriate number of valence electrons for an atom.

2) Determine whether the atom exhibits the appropriate number of electrons. 

10

What are the 3 bond categories?

1) covalent

2) polar covalent

3) ionic

 

11

induction

withdrawal of electrons towards a much more electronegative atom

12

quantum mechanics

science of the very small; study of the particle and wave-like properties of electrons

13

electrostatic potential maps

3D, rainbow-like images that represent a visualization of partial charges

14

electron density

probability of finding an electron in a particular region of space 

15

atomic orbitals

region of space that can be occupied by electron density

16

nodes

Locations where the value of ψ is zero

17

The more nodes an orbital has, the _____ its energy.​ 

1. lower

2. greater

greater

18

degenerate orbitals

Orbitals with the same energy level 

19

What are the 3 principles involved in determining the order that orbitals are filled?

  1. Aufbau Principle
  2. Pauli Exclusion Principle
  3. Hund's rule

20

Aufbau Principle

The lowest energy orbital is filled first. 

21

Pauli Exclusion Principle

Each orbital can accommodate a maximum of two electrons that have opposite spin 

22

Hund's Rule

When dealing with degenerate orbitals, such as p orbitals, one electron is placed in each degenerate orbital first, before electrons are paired up 

23

A covalent bond is formed by the overlap of _______ ________.

atomic orbitals

24

What 2 theories describe atomic orbital overlap?

Valence bond theory and molecular orbital (MO) theory.

25

constructive interference

produces a wave with larger amplitude

26

destructive interference

results in waves canceling each other, which produces a node 

27

valence bond theory

a bond is simply the sharing of electron density between two atoms as a result of the constructive interference of their atomic orbitals 

28

sigma (σ) bond

 

all single / first bonds; electron density is primarily located on the bond axis

29

All single bonds are _____ bonds.

sigma (σ)

30

MO Theory

Molecular Orbital Theory

atomic orbitals are mathematically combined to produce new orbitals 

31

LCAO

- linear combination of atomic orbitals ​

- mathematical method to determine molecular orbitals

32

molecular orbitals

new orbital formed from combination of atomic orbitals; applies to entire molecule

33

bonding MO

lower energy molecular orbital; 

result of constructive interference of the original atomic orbitals;

electrons prefer due to lower energy

34

antibonding MO

higher energy molecular orbital;

result of destructive interference;

has 1 node

35

HOMO

highest occupied molecular orbital;

highest energy orbital among occupied orbitals

36

LUMO

lowest unoccupied molecular orbital;

the lowest energy orbital from among the unoccupied orbitals 

37

sp3-hybridized orbitals

average of one s orbital and three p orbitals;

gives us four orbitals

38

sp2-hybridized orbitals

average of one s orbital and 2 p orbitals;

produces three bonds

39

sp-hybridized orbitals

average of one s orbital and one p orbital;

produces two bonds

40

pi (π) bonds

overlapping p orbitals formed between two atoms that already have a σ bond

41

Rank single, double, and triple bonds in order of strength from strongest to weakest.

___ > ___ > ___

triple > double > single

42

steric number

σ bonds + lone pairs;

used to determine geometry

43

VSEPR Theory

valence shell electron pair repulsion;

repulsion of electron pairs in order to achieve maximal distance from each other;

determines geometry

44

Which type of electron interaction is a stronger repellent?

1. lone pair

2. bond

2. lone pair

45

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109.5º

46

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107º

47

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105º

48

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120º

49

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180º

50

Do pi (π) bonds affect the steric number?

Y or N

No

51

dipole moment (µ)

indicates polarity when induction is occuring

52

molecular dipole moment

vector sum of dipole moments;

takes into account both the magnitude and the direction of each individual dipole moment 

53

intermolecular forces

attractive forces between individual molecules

54

electrostatic

result of the attraction between opposite charges 

55

dipole - dipole interactions

interactions based on momentary dipole moments between atoms

56

hydrogen bonding

specific type of dipole - dipole interaction;

occurs when a hydrogen atoms is bonded to an electronegative atom and induction takes affect;

can interact with a lone pair from another electronegative atom

57

London Dispersion Forces

when a center and negative charge of an atom do not line up, creating a fleeting dipole moment, which can cause similar circumstances in surrounding atoms

58

More Surface Area =

1. more LDF, higher BP

2. fewer LDF, lower BP

3. fewer LDF, higher BP

4. more LDF, lower BP

 

1. more LDF, higher BP

59

Branching a molecule gives it more or less surface area?

less surface area

60

principle of solubility

like dissolves like

61

hydrophilic

attracted to water

62

hydrophobic

repelled by water

63

micelle

simple cell formed with nonpolar tails facing in and polar heads facing out;

ex. used to surround nonpolar oil molecules, while polar heads allow solubility