Chapter 1 - Science of Biology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1 - Science of Biology Deck (30):
0

Characteristics shared by living systems

Cellular organization, ordered complexity, sensitivity, growth, development, and reproduction, energy utilization, homeostasis, evolutionary adaptation.

1

Hierarchical organization

Cellular level: Atoms, molecules, organelles, cells
Organismal level: tissues, organs, organ systems
Population level: population, species, biological community
Ecosystem level
Biosphere: entire planet

2

Deductive reasoning

Replace general principles to protect specific results.reasoning of mathematics and philosophy, and is used to test validity of general ideas.

3

inductive reasoning

Logic flows from specific to general. Uses specific observations to construct general scientific principles.

4

Test experiment

One variable is altered in a known way to test a particular hypothesis

5

Control experiment

Variable is left unaltered

6

Reductionism

Philosophical approach that breaks larger systems into their component parts.

7

Homologous structures

Bones that have the same evolutionary origin, but now different structure and function

8

Analogous structures

Structures that have similar function but different evolutionary origins. Eg: butterfly and bird wings

9

Phylogenetic tree

Represents the evolutionary history of the Dean, it's family tree.

10

Cell theory

All living organisms consist of cells. Biologists schleidsn and Schwann. All cells come from pre existing cells

11

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid. Formed from two long chains of building blocks, called nucleotides. Four different nucleotides are found in DNA and sequence in which they occur encode cells information

12

Gene

Specific sequences of several hundred too many thousand nucleotides make up a gene, a discrete unit of information

13

Homeostasis

The maintenance of a relatively stable internal physiological environment and an organism;usually involves some form of feedback self-regulation

14

Macromolecule

And extremely large biological molecule; refers specifically to proteins, nucleic acid, polysaccharides, lipids and complexes of these.

15

Organelle

Specialized part of cell

16

Population

Any group of individuals, usually of a single species, occupying a given area at the same time

17

Fungi

Have cell walls of chitin and obtain energy by secreting digestive enzymes and then absorbing products released from the environment

18

Animalia

Luck so walls and obtain energy by ingesting other organisms

19

Protista

Consists of all single so eukaryotes except yeasts. Also multicellular algae

20

Plantae

Have cell walls of cellulose and obtain energy by photosynthesis

21

Atom

Smallest unit of an element that contains all the characteristics of that element

22

Tissue

Group of similar cells are organized into a structural and functional unit

23

Prokaryote

A bacterium; a cell lacking a membrane – bound nucleus or membrane – bound organelles

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Eukaryote

A cell characterized by membrane-bound organelles, most notably the nucleus, and one that possesses chromosomes who's DNA is associated with proteins; an organism composed of such cells

25

Natural selection

Effect environment has on a variable population, such that the best adapted individuals reproduce and survive at a higher rate

26

3 domains of living things

Archaea, bacteria, eukarya

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Kingdoms of eukarya

Bacteria, Protista, Animalia, plantae

28

3 factors that influence extent to which Chem reactions occur

Catalysts, temps, concentration, surface area, reactants

29

What type of covalent bond is found in water

Polar covalent between H and O