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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Section 1 Deck (16):
1

Scientific Method

a way to answer questions using empirical research and data based conclusions

2

Science of Human Development

seeks to understand how and why people of all ages and circumstances change or remain the same over time

3

Theory

a comprehensive set of ideas

4

Hypothesis

a specific prediction that can be tested

5

Empirical

based on observation, experience, or experiment not theoretical

6

The Scientific Method

1. Curiosity
2. Hypothesis
3. Test
4. Analyze data and draw conclusions
5. Report results

7

Replication

Repeating a study with different participants

8

What makes the study of human development a science?

It depends on theories, data, analysis, critical thinking, and sound methodology
It's interdisciplinary

9

Why is replication considered an essential follow-up to the five steps of the scientific method?

Replication is needed to verify conclusions.

10

Why is it a mistake to ask whether a human behavior stems from nature or nurture?

Both genes and the environment affect every characteristic. Nature always effects nurture and vice versa.

11

Why are some children more affected by their environment than others?

Some genes are vulnerable making people more susceptible to difficult or traumatic experiences while others have protective genes which do the opposite.

12

Nature

Traits, capacities, and limitations that each individual inherits genetically from his or her parents at conception

13

Nurture

All the environmental influences that affect the individual after conception. Starting the moment after conception.

14

Differential Susceptibility

The idea that people vary in how sensitive they are to particular experiences. Often these difference are genetic.

15

What is the difference between each of the three domains?

Biosocial Development: Includes all the growth and change that occurs in a person's body and the genetic, nutritional, and health factors that affect that growth and change. + motor skills

Cognitive Development: Includes all mental processes that a person uses to obtain knowledge or to think about the environment: perception, imagination, judgment, memory, and language. + education (formal and informal)

Psychosocial Development: Includes development of emotion, temperament, and social skills. Family, friends, the community, the culture, and the larger society are particular central to this domain.

16

Why do some people believe that the years of childhood are more crucial for development than the years of adulthood?

Once developmental scientist focused exclusively on children because they looked at physical growth and the physical declines of old age. Some research suggests that the first years of life are the most crucial for intellectual or emotional development.