Flashcards in Chapter 1 - The Scientific Rationale for Integrated Training Deck (37):
What are Muscle Imbalances?
Alteration of muscle length surrounding a joint.
What is Chronic Disease?
An incurable illness or health condition the persists for a year or more, resulting in functional limitations and the need for ongoing care.
*note:* can be preventable and manageable through early detection, treatment, and healthy living.
What is Obesity?
The condition of being considerably overweight, and refers to a person with a body mass index of 30 or greater, who is at least 30lbs over the recommended weight for their height.
What qualifies as Overweight?
Refers to a person with a body mass index of 25 to 29.9, or who is between 25-30lbs over the recommended weight for their height.
What are the healthy, borderline and high-risk levels for Blood Lipids/Cholesterol?
Healthy Level: less than 200mg/dL
Borderline Level: 200-239 mg/dL
High-Risk Level: 240 mg/dL
What are Blood Lipids?
Also known as cholesterol and triglycerides, blood lipids are carried in the bloodstream by protein molecules known as high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and low-density lipoproteins (LDL), or "bad cholesterol." Healthy level is less than 200mg/dL.
What is Lumbar Lordisis?
Curve in lumbar spine associated with back pain.
What does ACL stand for?
Anterior Cruciate Ligament (in knee)
What is Diabetes Mellitus?
Metabolic disorder caused by insulin deficiency, which impairs carbohydrate usage and enhances usage of fats and proteins.
What's the difference between a sprain vs strain?
Sprain: injured ligaments
Strain: injured tendons or muscles
What is Neuromuscular Stabilization?
What does "Deconditioned" mean?
A state of lost physical fitness, which may include muscle imbalances, decreased flexibility, and a lack of core and joint stability.
What is Proprioception?
The cumulative sensory input to the central nervous system from all mechanoreceptors that's sense body position and limb movement.
What is a Proprioceptively Enriched Environment?
An unstable (yet controllable) physical situation in which exercises are performed that causes the body to use its internal balance and stabilization mechanisms.
What is the Muscle Action Spectrum?
Concentric acceleration, eccentric acceleration, and isometric stabilization.
What is Integrated Training? Give examples of types of training.
Incorporates all forms of training in an integrated fashion (progressive system).
Includes flexibility training; cardiorespiratory training; core training; balance training; plyometric (reactive) training; speed, agility, and quickness training; and resistance training.
What is the Optimum Performance Training (OPT) Model
A training program developed for people with structural imbalances and susceptibility to injury that involves a process of programming that systematically progresses any client to any goal. Built on the foundation of principles that progressively and systematically allow any client to achieve optimal levels of physiologic, physical, and performance adaptions.
What are some physical benefits of the OPT Model?
1. Decreases body fat
2. Increases lean muscle mass (muscle)
3. Increases tissue tensile strength (tendons, ligaments, muscles)
What are some performance benefits of the OPT Model?
What are some physiologic benefits of the OPT Model?
1. Improves cardiorespiratory efficiency
2. Enhances beneficial endocrine (hormone) and serum lipid (cholesterol) adaptations
3. Increase metabolic efficiency (metabolism)
4. Increases bone density
What are Multiplantar Movements?
Movements in all directions
What is the Stabilization Endurance Level in Phases of Training and what are the primary goals? How are they achieved?
- Phase 1 = Stabilization Endurance Training
- Increase muscular endurance and stability while developing optimal neuromuscular efficiency (coordination).
- Typically done in circuit fashion (short rest periods) with low loads and high number of repetitions.
What is the definition of Phases of Training? How many phases are in the OPT Model?
Smaller divisions of training progressions that fall within three building blocks of training: Stabilization Level, Strength Level, and Power.
What is Muscular Endurance?
Muscle's ability to contract for an extended period.
What is Neuromuscular Efficiency?
The ability of the neuromuscular system to enable all muscles to efficiently work together in all planes of motion.
How can a client achieve stabilization and neuromuscular efficiency?
Having appropriate combination of
- Proper alignment (posture) of the human movement system (kinetic chain)
- The stabilization strength necessary to maintain that alignment
What is a Superset?
Set of two exercises that are performed back-to-back, without any rest time in between them.
Example: stable environment for first exercise (bench press), less stable environment for second exercise (stability ball push up).
What are the goals of Strength Endurance Training (Phases of Training, Level 2)? How is it achieved?
- Improve stabilization endurance
- Increase prime mover strength
- Improve overall work capacity
- Enhance joint stabilization
- Increase lean body mass achieved by moderate loads and repetitions.
Achieved by Superset:
- One traditional strength training exercise
- One stabilization per body part in the resistance training portion of the program
What Phase is the Strength Endurance in the OPT Model? How does a client enter the Strength Endurance Phase? What is the emphasis/goal of this phase?
- Phase 2 = Strength Endurance Training
- Follows in completion of Stabilization Level Training.
- To enhance and maintain stabilization endurance while increasing Prime Mover strength
What is a Prime Mover?
The muscle that acts as the initial and main source of motive power.
What Phase is the Power Level of Phases of Training? How does a client enter the Power Level Phase?
- Phase 5 = Power Level Phase
- Entered only after completion of Stabilization and Strength levels first.
What are the Goals of the Power Level Phase (Phase 5) in Phases of Training?
- To enhance neuromuscular efficiency
- Enhance prime mover strength
- Increase rate of force production
What is the Rate of Force Production?
Ability of muscles to exert maximal force output in a minimal amount of time.
How many phases are in the OPT Model? List them.
5 total Phases:
Phase 1: Stabilization Endurance Training
Phase 2: Strength Endurance Training
Phase 3: Hypertrophy
Phase 4: Maximal Strength Training
Phase 5: Power Training
What are the Goals of the Maximal Strength Phase (Phase 4) in Phases of Training?
- Increase motor unit recruitment
- Increase frequency of motor unit recruitment
- Improve peak force through high loads, low repetitions, with longer rest periods.
What are the Goals of the Hypertrophy Phase (Phase 3) in Phases of Training? How are they achieved?
- Achieve optimal levels of muscular hypertrophy (increase muscle size)
- high volume, moderate to high loads, moderate to low repetitions