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Flashcards in Chapter 10 Deck (88):
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Adam's apple

The bulky cartilage that forms the anterior portion of the Larynx

1

Agonal respirations

Gasping type respirations that have no pattern and occur very infrequently; a sign of impending cardiac or respiratory arrest

2

Alveolar ventilation

The amount of inspired air that reaches the alveoli of the lungs

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Alveoli

The air sacs of the lungs

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Automatic transport ventilator

A positive pressure ventilation device that delivers ventilations automatically

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Bag valve mask (BVM) device

A positive pressure ventilation device that consists of a bag with a non-rebreather valve and a mask. The bag valve device is connected to the mask or other airway. The bag is squeezed to deliver a ventilation to the patient.

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Bilaterally

On both sides

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Bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP)

A form of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation. The BiPAP device delivers a continuous flow of air under pressure. It differs from the CPAP device in that it provides different pressures: higher during inspiration, lower during expiration.

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Bradypnea

A breathing rate that is slower than the normal rate

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Bronchi

The two main branches leading from the trachea to the lungs, providing the passageway for air movement

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Bronchioles

Small branches of the bronchi

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Carina

The point at which the trachea splits into the right and left mainstream bronchi

12

Chemoreceptors

Receptors that constantly monitor the arterial content of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and the blood pH and stimulate a change in respiratory rate and depth

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CPAP - continuous positive airway pressure

A form of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation. The CPAP device delivers a continuous flow of air under pressure

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Cricoid cartilage

The most inferior portion of the larynx and only for cartilaginous ring of the upper airway. It is felt immediately below the thyroid cartilage

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Cricoid pressure

Pressure applied to the cricoid cartilage to compress the esophagus

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Crossed fingers technique

it's technique in which the thumb in the index finger are crossed with the thumb on the lower incisors and the index finger on The upper incisors. The fingers are moved in a snapping or scissor motion to open the mouth

17

Crowing

A sound similar to that in the cawing Crow that indicates that the muscles around the larynx are in spasm and beginning to narrow the opening into the trachea

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Cyanosis

A bluegray color of the mucous membrane and/or skin, which indicates in adequate oxygenation or poor perfusion

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Dead airspace (Vp)

Anatomical areas in the respiratory tract (outside the alveoli) where air collects during inhalation of the new gas exchange occurs

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Deoxygenated

Containing low amounts of oxygen, as with venous blood

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Diaphragm

The major muscle of respiration that separates the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity

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Epiglottis

Is small, leaf shaped flap of cartilaginous tissue, located immediately posterior to the root of the tongue, that covers the opening of the lyrics to keep food and liquid from entering the trachea and lungs

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Exhalation/expiration

The passive process of breathing air out of the lungs

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External respiration

The gas exchange process that occurs between the alveoli and the pulmonary capillaries

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(FROPVD)
Hello restricted, oxygen powered ventilation device

A device that consists of a ventilation valve and trigger or button and is driven directly by oxygen. It is used to provide positive pressure ventilation

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French catheter

Flexible tubing that is part of a suctioning system

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Gastric distention

Inflation of the stomach

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Gurgling

A gargling sound that indicates a fluid in the stomach or pharynx

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Hard catheter

A rigid plastic tube that is part of auctioning system, commonly referred to as a tonsil tip or tonsil sucker

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Head tilt, chin lift maneuver

A manual technique used to open an airway. Head is tilted back by one hand, tips if fingers of the other hand are placed under the chin, & used to lift the mandible up and forward

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Hemoglobin

A complex protein molecule found on the surface of the red blood cell that is responsible for carrying a majority of oxygen in the blood

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High pressure regulator

A one gauge regulator that is use to power the low restricted oxygen powered ventilation device. The flow rate cannot be adjusted

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Hypoperfusion

The insufficient delivery of oxygen and other nutrients to some of the body's cells and inadequate elimination of carbon dioxide and other wastes that results from inadequate circulation of blood.

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Hypoxemia

A low oxygen content in arterial blood

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Hypoxia

A reduced oxygen delivery to the tissues

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Inhalation/inspiration

The active process of breathing air into the lungs

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Intercostal muscles

The muscles between the ribs

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Internal respiration

The gas exchange process that occurs between the cells and the capillaries

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Jaw thrust maneuver

A manual technique used to open the airway in the patient with a suspected spinal injury. The fingers are placed at the angles of the job and used to lift the mandible up and forward

40

Laryngectomy

A surgical procedure in which a patient's larynx is partially or completely removed. A stoma is created for the patient to breathe through

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Larynx

Structure that houses the vocal chords and is located inferior to the fair next and superior to the trachea

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Lower airway

The portion of the respiratory system that extends from the trachea to the alveoli of the lungs

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Minute volume

The amount of air moved in and out of the lungs in one minute

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Mucous membrane

A thin layer of tissue that lines very structures within the body

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Nasal cannula

And oxygen delivery device that consists of two prongs that are inserted into the nose of the patient. The oxygen concentration delivered is from 24 to 44%

46

Nasopharyngeal

A curved, hollow rubber tube with a flange or flair at the top end & a bevel at the distal end that is inserted into the nose. It fits into the nasopharynx and extends into the pharynx providing a passage for air

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Nasopharynx

The portion of the pharynx that extends from the nostrils to the soft palate

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Non-rebreather mask

And oxygen delivery device that consists of a reservoir and one-way valve. They can deliver up to 95% to 98% oxygen to the patient

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Oropharyngeal airway

A semi circular hard plastic device that is inserted into the mouth and holds the tongue away from the back of the pharynx

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Oropharynx

The central portion of the pharynx lying between the soft palate and the epiglottis with the mouth as the opening

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Oxygen humidifier

A container that is filled with sterile water and connected to the oxygen regulator to add moisture to the dry oxygen prior to being delivered to the patient

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Oxygenated

Containing high amounts of oxygen, as with arterial blood

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Oxygenation

The form of respiration in which oxygen molecules move across the membrane from an area of high oxygen concentration to an area of low oxygen concentration, as when oxygen moves out of a blood vessel into a cell; the process by which the blood and the cells become saturated with oxygen

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Parietal pleura

The outermost pleural layer that adheres to the chest wall

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Partial rebreather mask

And oxygen delivery device similar to a non-rebreather mask, but a two-way valve that allows the patient to rebreather about one third of his exhaled air

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Patent airway

An airway that is open and clear of any obstructions

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Pharynx

The throat, or passageway for air from the nasal cavity to the larynx and passageway for food from the mouth to the esophagus; the common passageway for the respiratory and digestive tracts

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Pleura

Two layers of connective tissue that surround the lungs

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Pleural space

A small space between the visceral and parietal pleura that is at negative pressure and filled with serious fluid

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Positive pressure ventilation (PPV)

Method of aiding a patient whose breathing is inadequate by forcing air into his lungs

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Pressure regulator

A device that reduces the high-pressure in an oxygen cylinder to a safe range, from 30 to 70 psi, and controls the flow of oxygen from 1 to 15 lpm

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Residual volume

The air remaining in the lungs after a maximal exhalation

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Respiration

The exchange of gases between an organism and its environment; the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide that takes place during inhalation and exhalation

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Respiratory arrest

Complete stoppage of breathing (apnea)

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Respiratory distress

Increased respiratory effort resulting from impaired respiratory function, while tidal volume and respiratory rate are still adequate

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Respiratory failure

Insufficient respiratory rate and/or title volume

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Respiratory rate

The number of breaths taken in one minute

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Retractions

Depressions seen in the neck, above the clavicle, between the ribs, or below the rib cage from excessive muscle use during breathing. It is an indication of respiratory distress

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Rigid catheter

A rigid plastic tube that is part of a suctioning system, commonly referred to as a tonsil tip or tonsil sucker

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Serous fluids

Fluid that acts as a lubricant to reduce the friction between the parietal and visceral pleura

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Simple facemas

No reservoir and can deliver up to 60% oxygen, depending on the patient's tidal volume and the oxygen flow rate

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Snoring

A sound that is heard when the base of the tongue or relaxed tissues in the pharynx partially block the upper airway, also called sonorous sound

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Soft catheter

Flexible tubing that is part of a suctioning system, also called a French catheter

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Stoma

A permanent surgical opening into the neck and trachea

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Tachypnea

A breathing rate that is faster than the normal rate

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Therapy regulator

A device that controls the flow and pressure of oxygen from the tank to allow for a consistent delivery of oxygen by liters per minute

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Thyroid cartilage

The bulky cartilage that forms the anterior portion of the larynx

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Tidal volume (Vt)

The amount of air breathed in and out in one normal respiration

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Tonsil tip or tonsil sucker

Rigid suction catheter

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Trachea

The tubelike structure that leads from the larynx to the lungs

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Tracheostomy

A surgical opening in the trachea

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Tracheostomy mask

Used to deliver aerosolized medicine, bland aerosol therapy, or oxygen to a patient with a tracheostomy tube

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Tracheostomy tube

A hollow tube that is inserted into a tracheostomy to allow the patient to breathe

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Upper airway

The portion of the respiratory system that extends from the nose and mouth to the larynx

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Ventilation

The mechanical process by which air is moved in and out of the lungs, primarily caused by changes in pressure inside the chest

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Venturi mask

A low flow oxygen system that provides precise concentrations of oxygen through an entrainment valve connected to the facemask

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Visceral pleura

Innermost layer of the pleura that covers the lung