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Flashcards in chapter 10 Deck (34):
1

stress

The physiological and psychological response to a condition that threatens or challenges a person and requires some form of adaption or adjustment

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Sources of stress

major life changes, catastrophic events, everyday hassles, historical racism, poverty, adjusting to a new culture

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Live events approach

the view that a person's stage if well-being can be threatened by major life changes

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Catastrophic events

war, terrorist attacks, earthquakes, hurricanes, plane crashes, and like are stressful for those who experiment directly and for people who learn of them via media

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Everyday hassles

irritating demands that occur daily and may cause more stress than major life changes do (stuck in traffic)

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Historical racism

experienced by members of groups that have a history of repression (Hispanic Americans)

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Poverty

unemployment, fear of unemployment
Adjusting to a new culture

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Three conflict situations

approach-approach, avoidance-avoidance, approach-avoidance

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Approach-approach

a conflict arising from having to choose between equally desirable alternatives

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Avoidance- avoidance

a conflict arising from having to choose between undesirable consequences

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Approach-avoidance

conflict arising when the same choice has been both desirable and undesirable features

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Human contact

some workers have virtually no human contact on the job; others have almost continuous contact with others. People vary greatly in how much interaction they enjoy or even tolerate

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Physical variables

jobs range from being physically demanding to requiring little to no physical activity. Some jobs involve physical risk.

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Biomedical model

a perspective that explains illness soley in terms of biological factors

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Biopychosocial model

a perspective that focuses on health as well as illness and holds that both are determined by a combination of biological, psychological, and social factors

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Psychoneuroimmunology research

A field in which psychologist, biologist, and medical researchers combine their expertise to study the effects of psychological factors on the immune system
Studies show that periods of high stress are correlated with increased inflammation in many kinds of tissue as well as symptoms of infectious disease
Stress has the power to suppress the immune system long after the stressful experience is over
Sleep deprivation has been linked to lowered immune response
Several months after a death the spouse suffers weakened immune system functions

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The General Adaptation Syndrome

The predictable sequence of reaction that organisms show in response to stressors
1. Alarm stage- the first stage of general adaptation syndrome, the person experiences a burst of energy that aids in dealing with stressful situations
2. Resistance stage- the second stage of the general adaptation syndrome, when there are intense physiological efforts to either resist or adapt to stressor
3.Exhaustion stage- the third stage of general adaptation syndrome, occurs if the organisms fail in its efforts to resist the stressor

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Lazarus’ primary vs. secondary appraisal

Primary- "am I okay or in trouble?"
Secondary- "is this in my control?"

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coping

Efforts through actions and thought to deal with demands that are perceived as taxing or overwhelming

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The effect of social involvement

Promote health, seemed to enjoy a powerful shield of protection against the virus infection

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three types of coping

Problem-focused- go to source
Emotion-focused- manage reaction
Proactive- effort made beforehand

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optimism

hopefulness and confidence about the future or the successful outcome of something

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relations to stress

Generally cope more effectively with stress, may reduce risk of illness

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Hardiness (the “three C’s”)

the ability to endure difficult conditions, people who can handle high levels of stress and remain healthy
1. Commitment
2. Control
3. Challenge

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Social support

tangible and/or emotional support provided in time of need by family members, friends, and others; the feeling of being loved, valued, and cared for by those towards whom we feel similar obligations

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social support effects on immune system

Positive effects on the immune system, cardiovascular, and endocrine systems
Encourage health-promoting behaviors and reduce the impact of stress so that people are less likely to resort to unhealthy methods of coping
Reduce depression and enhance self-esteem

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Type A

sense of time urgency, impatience, excessive competitiveness, hostility, and anger; considered risk factor in coronary heart disease

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Type B

relaxed, easygoing approach to life, without urgency, impatience, and hostility

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Sexually transmitted diseases

Infections that are spread primarily through intimate contact

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Bacterial

caused by bacteria and can be treated with antibiotics

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Viral

caused by viruses and are considered to be incurable

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aerobic exercise

Exercise that uses the large muscle groups in continuous, repetitive action and increases oxygen intake and breathing heart rate

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The #1 cause of preventable diseases and deaths in the US

Coronary heart disease

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most frequently abused substance

alcohol