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Flashcards in Chapter 10 Deck (36):
1

the sequence of events during which a cell experiences a period of growth followed by nuclear division and cytokinesis

cell cycle

2

nuclear division that produces daughter nuclei that are exact genetic copies of the parental nucleus

mitosis

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the division of diploid cells to haploid progeny, consisting of 2 sequential rounds of nuclear and cellular division

meiosis

4

in eukaryotic cells, a linear structure composed of a single DNA molecule complexed with protein. each eukaryotic species has a characteristic number in the nucleus. most prokaryotes have a single, usually circular with few or no associated proteins

chromosomes

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an organism or cell with 2 copies of each type of chromosomes in its nucleus

diploid

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the 2 chromosomes of each pair in a diploid cell-one of the pair derives from the maternal parent and the other derives from the paternal parent. they have the same genes in the same order, in their DNA

homologous chromosomes

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an organism or cell with only one copy of each type of chromosome in its nuclei

haploid

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number of chromosomes sets of a cell or species

ploidy

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one of 2 exact copies of a chromosome duplicated during replication

sister chromatids

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equal distribution of daughter chromosomes to each of the 2 cells that result from cell division

chromosome segregation

11

an individual genetically identically identical to an original cell from which it descended

clones

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living cells growing in a growth medium in a laboratory vessel

cell cultures

13

first stage of mitotic cell cycle, during which the cell grows and replicates its DNA before undergoing mitosis and cytokinesis

interphase

14

initial growth stage of the cell cycle in eukaryotes, during which the cell makes proteins and other types of cellular molecules, but not nuclear DNA

G1 phase

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phase of the eukaryotic cell cycle during which DNA replication occurs

S phase

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phase of the cell cycle in eukaryotes during which the cell continues to synthesize proteins and to grow, completing interphase

G2 phase

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phase of the cell cycle in eukaryotes in which many cell type stop dividing

G0 phase

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beginning phase of mitosis during which the duplicated chromosomes within nucleus condense from a greatly extended state into compact, rodlike structures

prophase

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transition period between prophase and metaphase during which the microtubules of the mitotic spindle attach to the kinetochores and the chromosomes shuffle until they align in the center of the cell

prometaphase

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phase of mitosis during which the spindle reaches its final form and the spindle microtubules move the chromosomes into alignment at the spindle midpoint

metaphase

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phase of mitosis during which the spindle separates sister chromatids and pulls them to opposite spindle pole

anaphase

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final phase of mitosis during which the spindle disassembles, the chromosomes decondense and the nuclei reform

telophase

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structure that separates sister chromatids and moves them to opposite spindle poles

spindle

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one of the pair of centrosomes in a cell undergoing mitosis from which bundles of microtubules radiate tom part of the spindle form that pole

spindle poles

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one of 2 exact copies of a chromosome duplicated during replication

sister chromatids adhesions

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specialized structure consisting of proteins attached to a centromere that mediates the attachment and movement of chromosomes along the mitotic spindle

kinetochore

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specialized chromosomal region that connects sister chromatids and attaches them to the mitotic spindle

centromere

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characteristic of a species consisting of the shapes and sizes of all the chromosomes at metaphase

karyotype

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in cytokinesis, a groove that girdles the cell and gradually deepens until it cuts that cytoplasm into 2 parts

furrow

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in cytokinesis in plants, a new cell wall forms between the daughter nuclei and grows laterally until it divides the cytoplasm

cell plate

31

any mode of reproduction in which a single individual gives rise to offspring without fusion of gametes; that is, without genetic input from another individual

asexual reproduction

32

main microtubules organizing center of cell which organizes the microtubule cytoskeleton during interphase and positions many of cytoplasmic organelles

centrosome

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an anchoring point near the center of a eukaryotic cell from which most microtubules extend outward

microtubule organizing center (MTOC)

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a cylindrical structure consisting of 9 triplets of microtubules in the centrosomes of most animal cells

centrioles

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radiating array produced as microtubules extending from the centrosomes of cells grow in length and extent

asters

36

division of the cytoplasm into 2 daughter cells following nuclear division in mitosis or meiosis

cytokinesis