Flashcards in Chapter 10 Deck (26):
What is epidemiology?
The occurrence, spread and control of diseases
What is an infection?
The presence of an infectious organism in an individual or population
What is a disease?
A detectable clinical consequence of infection
What is incubation time?
The time interval between exposure to infection and appearance of disease
What does it mean to be infectious?
When an infected person is capable of transmitting the infection to others
What are symptoms?
What a patient feels (pain and malaise)
Subjective and can change
What is a sign?
An objective and concrete thing that can be measured through direct observation
What does it mean when a disease is communicable? What are some examples?
It can be spread from one individual to other directly or indirectly.
Gonorrhea, chickenpox, measles, mumps
What does it mean when a disease is contagious? What are some examples?
It is easily spread.
What is an example of a non-communicable disease?
What are the time periods of an infection?
Susceptible, latent period, infectious period and non-infectious period (left body)
What is generation time?
The latent period and the infectious period
What are the time periods for infectious diseases?
Susceptible, incubation period (no signs or symptoms), symptomatic period and non-disease period
What is an endemic disease?
A disease that exists in a population, happens in low numbers but happens all the time. In certain areas.
What is a sporadic disease?
When a disease does not generally occur in this area
What is an epidemic disease?
An outbreak of a disease within a bigger geographical distribution.
What is a pandemic disease?
An epidemic that spreads across continents.
What is an acute disease? What is an example?
Rapidly developing with a short duration
What is a chronic disease? What is an example?
Usually develop from chronic infections. Slow to develop with continual duration of symptoms
What is a latent disease What is an example?
Inactivated for certain periods of time with no symptoms
What is done in a cross-sectional study? What disease can it be used for?
Outcome and exposure are determined at the same time. Collect data at one time point
Cheap and quick
Fixed source of infection
What is done in a case control study? What disease can it be used for?
Have cases with the outcome and controls without the outcome and determine the exposure status
Disease prevalence or incidence are not measured
What is done in a cohort study? What disease can it be used for?
Identify the individuals who have and haven't been exposed and follow them to see if they develop the outcome
HHV and HIV=Kaposi sarcoma
What is done in an intervention study?
Randomized trials used to check the efficacy of treatment, follow patients over time
Only study where we intervene
How can we investigate a local outbreak?
There is a fixed number of individuals so tracking is easy