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Flashcards in Chapter 10 Deck (35):
1

What is "Taxonomy"?

The science of classifying organisms
(shows degree of similarity among organisms)

2

What is "Phylogeny"?

The study of the evolutionary history of organisms

3

Who devised the 5-kingdom classification system?

Robert Whittaker

4

Who created the Kingdom "Prokaryotae"?

Murray

5

He thought of the 3-Domain system

Carl Woese

6

Methanogens, Extreme Halophiles, and Hyperthermophiles all belong to the domain....

Archaea

7

Eukaryotic cells have __s ribosomes;
Prokaryotic cells have __s ribosomes

80;
70

8

Prokaryotic cells reproduce through _______
Eukaryotic cells reproduce through________

Binary Fission;
Mitosis

9

This domain supposedly originated from infoldings of prokaryotic plasma membranes....

Eukarya

10

All organisms in one phylogenetic tree share a common _______?

Ancestor
(each species retains some characteristics of
its ancestor)

11

Specific Epithets are also known as

Species

12

Who developed the Taxonomic hierarchy?

Carolus Linnaeus

13

Eukaryotic species: a group of _____ related organisms that _____ among themselves

closely; breed

14

Prokaryotic species: a population of cells with ______ characteristics

similar

15

What is a bacterial culture?

Bacteria grown in laboratory media

16

Define "clone"

A population of cells derived from a single parent cell

17

A set of genetically different cells within a clone is known as a....?

Strain

18

What domain do viruses belong to?

None

19

What is serology?

The science that studies serum and immune responses in serum
Microorganisms are antigenic—they stimulate the body to form antibodies in the serum

20

What happens in the slide agglutination test?

Bacteria agglutinate when mixed with antibodies produced in response to the bacteria

21

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is the best way to identify unknown ______

Bacterium

22

The Western Blotting test, which identifies antibodies in a patient's serum is most commonly used to confirm a _____ infection

HIV

23

What is "Phage Typing" used for?

Phage Typing is used to determine which phages a bacterium is susceptible to.
(On a plate, clearings called plaques appear where phages infect and lyse bacterial cells)

24

Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) provide profiles that are _____ for a particular species

Constant

25

This testing method uses differences in electrical conductivity between species or fluorescence to identify bacteria types?

Flow Cytometry

26

What is DNA fingerprinting?

Comparing fragments from different organisms which provides information on genetic similarities and differences, which in turn leads to bacteria identification

27

Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests (NAATs) use PCR to amplify DNA of ________ microorganisms that ______ be cultured

Unknown
Cannot

28

Nucleic acid hybridization measures the ability of ____ strands from one organism to hybridize with ____ strands of another organism

DNA
btw: Greater degree of hybridization = greater degree of relatedness

29

"Southern blotting" uses nucleic acid hybridization to identify unknown microorganisms using ___ _______

DNA probes

30

___ ______, also known as "microarrays", contain DNA probes and detect pathogens by hybridization between the probe and DNA in the sample.

DNA chips
(btw: They are detected by fluorescence)

31

Ribotyping is also known as ....

rRNA sequencing

32

Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) is used to determine three microorganic features in a given environment:

1) Identity
2) Abundance
3) Relative Activity

33

What happens in the Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) test?

Fluorescent DNA or RNA probes stain the microorganisms being targeted

34

A series of identification keys based on successive questions is known as a ...

Dichotomous key

35

What are "Cladograms"?

Maps that show evolutionary relationships among organisms; based on rRNA sequences