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Flashcards in Chapter 10 Deck (45):
1

Emotion

an immediate and specific negative or positive response to environmental events or internal thoughts

2

Describe the 3 components of emotion

–Physiological response (e.g., heart rate changes)
–Behavioral response (e.g., eyes opening wide)
–Feeling:the subjective experience of an emotion

3

Mood

diffuse, long-lasting emotional state
•Rather than interrupt what is happening, moods influence ongoing thought and behavior

4

What are the primary emotions

Anger, Fear, Sadness, Disgust, Happiness, Surprise, Contempt (maybe)

5

Secondary Emotions

blends of primary emotions

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Facial Action Coding System (FACS)

-Paul Ekman and colleagues developed FACS as a way to objectively categorize facial expressions
-Shows similarity in emotion expression across cultures
-Used to study non-verbal communication in animals
-Popularized in the show Lie To Me

7

Circumplex Model

emotions vary on 2 dimensions:
Valence: positive or negative
Arousal: physiological activation
•Autonomic responses (heart rate, sweating)
•Brain activity (e.g., amygdala, insula, frontal regions)

8

Limbic System

Controls emotions & memory

9

Hypothalamus

Control appetitive behaviors
-regulation of bodily functions (e.g., temperature, blood pressure, glucose levels)
•also influences basic motivated behaviors–sleeping, eating, sex drive

10

Hippocampus

necessary for formation of memories

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Amygdala

critical for processing emotional information

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Fast pathway

-direct route from thalamus to amygdala
•Priority processing for threat / arousal
•“Response preparation”

13

Slow pathway

-sensory information travels to cortical regions for processing before reaching amygdala
•Controlled / deliberate responding

14

The Insula (“insular cortex”

•Integrates somatosensory information
•Involved in subjective awareness of bodily states (e.g., hunger, temperature)
•and subjective feelings of emotion
–Particularly active when feeling disgust, or secondary emotions related to it (e.g., guilt, anxiety, anger)

15

Pre-frontal Cortex

•Attributions about physiological states; and decision-making processes

16

James-Lange theory (1884)

We perceive a pattern of physical (bodily) responses and attribute it to emotions, which we feel
-stimulus -> arousal -> emotion
Evidence: Contorting your face into a smile or frown influenced how funny people rated cartoons

17

The Cannon-Bard theory (1934)

The body & mind (cortex) receive info. about emotion separately (but the bodily response is a little slower)
-stimulus -> body
and
stimulus -> emotion
•We experience both the physical & mental aspects

18

The Schachter-Singer 2-factor theory (1962)

An emotion is only experienced after we apply a label to the physiological arousal we are feeling
•Excitation Transfer is a misattributionof arousal
-stimulus -> arousal -> label -> emotion
Evidence: Placing people in high arousal situations can lead them to misattribute their arousal

19

Facial Feedback Hypothesis

facial expressions drive the experience of emotions (Thompkins, 1963)

20

Emotions Guide Behavior

Emotions drive us toward behaviors that increase our probability of surviving & reproducing ... and away from behaviors that decrease survival

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Emotions Color Perception

Quick emotional responses arise automatically, and constantly influence our perceptions
•These evaluations guide decisions, memory, & behavior

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Emotions Influence Cognition

Current emotions influence decisions & judgments... and typically have a stronger impact than cognitions!
•Predicted emotions serve as Heuristics

23

Can people identify primary emotions with only facial expression across cultures?

Yes

24

Does context influence how we interpret expressions?

Yes. Contextual information, such as body posture, helps us identify more complex emotions

25

Display rules

rules learned through socialization that dictate which emotions are suitable to which situations
–Differences in display rules help explain cultural stereotypes

26

How do display rules differ from men to women?

–Emotions more closely associated with women are related to caregiving, nurturing, and interpersonal relationships
–Emotions associated with men are related to dominance, defensiveness, and competitiveness

27

Social Evolutionary Theory

-Survival was enhanced for those who lived in groups–those expelled from social groups would have been less likely to survive and reproduce
–Social emotions may reflect a fundamental human need to belong
•People will be sensitive to anything that might get them kicked out of the group

28

Guilt

-a negative emotional state associated with anxiety, tension, and agitation
–typically occurs when we feel responsible for another person’s negative emotional state
–Seems to occur naturally in healthy relationships

29

What are the 3 ways guilt may protect / strengthen relationships

•Discourages us from doing things that harm relations
•Demonstrates that we care & re-affirms social bonds
•Can be used to manipulate others to fulfill our needs

30

Embarrassment

-a negative emotional state associated with shame, anxiety, and discomfort
–typically occurs when we have violated a cultural norm, lost physical poise, been teased, or experienced a threat to self-image

31

Blushing

-occurs when we believe others view us negatively
–communicates a realization of inter-personal errors
–Elicits forgiveness in others, thus re-affirming bonds and repairing relationships

32

Motivation

a process that energizes, guides, and maintains behavior toward a goal

33

Describe the 4 aspects of motivational states

1)are energizing / stimulating: they activate behavior
2)are directive: they guide behavior toward satisfying specific goals or specific needs
3)help animals persist in their behavior until they achieve their goals or satisfy their needs
4)differ in strength, depending on internal and external forces

34

Need

-a state of biological or social deficiency
–Needs lead to goal-directed behaviors
–Failures to satisfy a need can lead to physical or psycho-social impairment

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Need Hierarchy

-Maslow’s arrangement of needs
–Basic survival needs must be met before we can satisfy higher needs

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Self-actualization

a state that is achieved when one’s personal dreams and aspirations have been attained.

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Drive

-a psychological state that motivates an organism to satisfy a need... by creating arousal
–Basic drives (hunger, thirst) maintain equilibrium

38

Does drive reduction motivate behavior?

Yes

39

Homeostasis, Drive Reduction

Homeostasis: the tendency for bodily functions to maintain equilibrium
•Hull proposed that when one is deprived of a need (e.g., water, food, sleep)... a drive increases in proportion to the amount of deprivation
–We are constantly trying to reduce drives, by satisfying needs

40

Yerkes-Dodson law

the principle that performance increases with arousal – up to a moderate level – and arousal beyond that level impairs performance

41

Incentive

external objects or goals (rather than internal drive states) that motivate behaviors

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Extrinsic motivation

motivation to perform an activity because of external goals / incentives

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Intrinsic motivation

-motivation to perform an activity because of the value or pleasure associated with that activity, rather than for an external goal
-Intrinsic motivation can be undermined by extrinsic rewards or incentives

44

Approach motivations

we seek out food, sex, and companionship, which are typically associated with pleasure

45

Avoidance motivations

we avoid negative outcomes, such as dangerous animals, very bitter foods, or negative emotions (e.g., guilt)