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​2.​Cultural influences have had a greater influence on body perception during the past few decades because of the increase in
a.
mass media.
b.
food availability.
c.
medical services.
d.
health knowledge.

A

1

​1.​An individual has a distorted body image when
a.
his or her body has abnormal proportions.
b.
his or her perception of his or her body differs from reality.
c.
he or she is dissatisfied with his or her personal appearance.
d.
he or she focuses on changing a specific body part.

B

2

​3.​A healthy and positive body image is associated with
a.
adoption of a range of healthy lifestyle behaviors.
b.
achievement of a healthy weight and body composition.
c.
freedom from prejudice against overweight and underweight individuals.
d.
realistic evaluation and acceptance of our positive and negative attributes.

D

3

​4.​Body mass index (BMI) is
a.
the ratio of waist circumference to hip circumference.
b.
weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters.
c.
an indicator of personal satisfaction with current body weight.
d.
weight in kilograms divided by waist circumference in centimeters.

B

4

​5.​Risk of mortality in adults is lowest for those with a body mass index that is between
a.
15 and 20.
b.
20 and 25.
c.
25 and 30.
d.
30 and 40.

B

5

​6.​The increased risk of mortality in individuals with a very low body mass index is probably related to
a.
low levels of body fat.
b.
inadequate fat intake.
c.
low levels of lean body mass.
d.
failure to store energy from ingested food.

C

6

​7.​Fat stored in the abdominal area is called _____ fat.
a.
gynoid
b.
visceral
c.
essential
d.
subcutaneous

B

7

​8.​Metabolic syndrome is associated with increased risk of
a.
diabetes mellitus.
b.
thyroid disorders.
c.
digestive disorders.
d.
leukemia and lymphoma.

A

8

​9.​Obesity may be a contributing factor in development of
a.
osteoporosis.
b.
alcoholism.
c.
sleep apnea.
d.
multiple sclerosis.

C

9

​10.​Adverse effects of obesity that are not life threatening but decrease quality of life include
a.
arthritis.
b.
heart disease.
c.
diabetes mellitus.
d.
high blood pressure.

A

10

​11.​Restrained eating is defined as
a.
avoiding certain types of foods.
b.
limiting food intake to certain times of day.
c.
ceasing to eat when hunger has been satisfied.
d.
limiting food intake to less than natural appetite.

D

11

​12.​If an individual says they have a desire for dessert after they have eaten a meal they are describing their
a.
thirst.
b.
satiety.
c.
hunger.
d.
appetite.

D

12

​13.​For a man, a total body fat level of 18% is considered
a.
too low.
b.
healthy.
c.
too high.
d.
obese.

B

13

​14.​If a health practitioner wants to assess whether an underweight woman is too thin, he or she may ask her
a.
if she has lost weight recently.
b.
if other family members are underweight.
c.
whether she has a normal appetite.
d.
whether she menstruates regularly.

D

14

​15.​If a woman’s waist measurement is 34 inches and her hip measurement is 40 inches, her waist-to-hip ratio would be considered to be
a.
associated with a high risk of chronic disease.
b.
unrelated to risk of chronic disease.
c.
associated with a low risk of chronic disease.
d.
associated with a high risk of acute disease.

A

15

​16.​Compared to women, it appears to be easier for men to lose weight because
a.
men have more willpower than women.
b.
men tend to be more active than women.
c.
visceral fat is lost more easily than lower body fat.
d.
lower body fat is lost more easily than visceral fat.

C

16

​17.​Excess fat is stored in our bodies as
a.
fatty acids in the liver.
b.
glycogen in the muscles.
c.
glycerol in cell cytoplasm.
d.
triglycerides in adipocytes.

D

17

​18.​The increase in the number of adipocytes in the body during growth spurts is known as
a.
mutation.
b.
maturation.
c.
hyperplasia.
d.
hypertrophy.

C

18

​19.​The best way to accurately measure body fat levels is to use
a.
body mass index (BMI).
b.
triceps skinfold thickness.
c.
underwater weighing (densitometry).
d.
bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA).

C

19

​20.​To lose a pound of body fat in a week, daily energy expenditure would have to increase by about _____ kcals.
a.
350
b.
500
c.
700
d.
3500

B

20

​21.​The causes of obesity are largely
a.
genetic.
b.
cultural.
c.
multifactorial.
d.
environmental.

C

21

​22.​According to set point theory, if weight or fatness falls below the level perceived to be appropriate by the body, the individual will
a.
experience a greater desire for high-fat foods.
b.
develop a new, lower set point for body weight.
c.
experience an overall increase in hunger drive.
d.
decrease his or her physical activity level until weight is regained.

C

22

​23.​Factors that appear to help reduce the body’s set point for body weight and body fatness include
a.
regular aerobic exercise.
b.
decreased protein intake.
c.
use of weight loss medications.
d.
use of specific vitamin supplements.

A

23

​24.​A major problem associated with cycles of weight loss and weight gain is
a.
decreased ability to metabolize body fat.
b.
loss of sensitivity to physiologic hunger cues.
c.
a false sense of empowerment and control of body weight.
d.
hormonal imbalances triggered by changes in body fat levels.

B

24

​25.​To maintain a healthy weight, the most important goals are related to changes in
a.
behaviors.
b.
food intake.
c.
physical activity.
d.
supplement use.

A

25

​26.​The most important factor in setting behavioral goals is
a.
the client’s willingness to exercise.
b.
individual habits and preferences.
c.
the amount of weight loss desired.
d.
the skill of the health practitioner.

B

26

​27.​If a client wants to relearn to pay attention to hunger and satiety cues, they may find it helpful to
a.
keep a journal of perceived emotions.
b.
establish a regular pattern of meals.
c.
eat all their food at home.
d.
avoid eating until they are very hungry.

A

27

​28.​The best way to maintain lean body mass is to
a.
avoid weight loss.
b.
exercise regularly.
c.
decrease dietary fat intake.
d.
ensure adequate protein intake.

B

28

​29.​National programs that aim to reverse the trend of increasing body weight should focus on
a.
smoking cessation.
b.
maintenance of ideal body weight.
c.
monitoring annual weight changes.
d.
achievement of a healthier body weight.

D

29

​30.​Our main attitude towards food should be one of
a.
self-control.
b.
necessity.
c.
enjoyment.
d.
healthy choices.

C