Chapter 10 -Airway Management, Artificial Ventilation, and Oxygenation Flashcards Preview

EMT - Basic - Prehostpital Emergency Care 10th Edition > Chapter 10 -Airway Management, Artificial Ventilation, and Oxygenation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 10 -Airway Management, Artificial Ventilation, and Oxygenation Deck (48):
1

________, or simply ventilation or breathing, is the mechanical process of moving air in and out of the lungs.

pulmonary ventilation

2

_______ is the gas exchange process that occurs between the alveoli and the surrounding pulmonary capillaries. alveoli/capillary gas exhange

external respirations

3

_______ is the gas exchange process that occurs between the cells and the systemic capillaries. cell/capillary gas exchange

internal respirations

4

________________, AKA aerobic metabolism, occurs in the cell.

cellular respiration and metabolism

5

_____ extends from the nose and mouth to the cricoid cartilage, the most inferior portion of the larynx

the upper airway

6

air is warmed, moistened, and filtered as it flows over the damp, sticky ______ lining in the nose.

mucous membrane

7

the ______ is a common cause of airway obstruction in the patient with an altered mental status.

tongue

8

the anterior portion of the larynx is composed of the large bulky _______, commonly known as the adam's apple

thyroid cartilage

9

the _____ forms the most inferior portion of the larynx and is the only completely circular cartilaginous ring of the upper airway, found just below the adams apple.

cricoid cartilage

10

upper airway consists of:

naso/oropharynx
pharynx
epiglottis
larynx

11

lower airway consists of:

trachea
bronchi
bronchioles
lungs

12

the ______, commonly known as the windpipe, is the passageway for air entering the lungs.

trachea

13

at the inferior portion of the trachea. the location where the trachea bifurcates into the left and right mainstem bronchi

carina

14

two major branches of the trachea that extend from the carina into the lungs.

left and right mainstem bronchi

15

the ______ is the innermost covering of the lung.

visceral pleura

16

the ______ is a thicker, more elastic layer that adheres to the inner portion of the chest wall

parietal pleura

17

The tiny area between the two layers of the pleura (the thin covering that protects and cushions the lungs) between the lungs and chest cavity. This space is normally filled with a small amount of fluid.

pleural space

18

the pleural space contains a small amount of ________ that acts as a lubricant to reduce friction when the layers of the pleura rub against each other during breathing.

serous fluid

19

muscle that separates the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity. major muscle for breathing. is responsible for 60-70% of the effort of ventilation

diaphragm

20

inhalation is an ______ process because it requires energy to contract the muscles.

active

21

exhalation is a ______ process because the muscles relax and little energy is expended

passive

22

the ______ continuously monitor levels of 02, C02, and pH in the arterial blood and stimulate or decrease in impulses from the respiratory rhythm centers to control the rate and depth of ventilation.

chemoreceptors

23

category of conditions known as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which include:

emphysema
chronic bronchitis

24

_____ is the process by which the blood and the cells become saturated in oxygen.

oxygenation

25

_______ is a low oxygen content in arterial blood. typically occurs from a ventilation-perfusion mismatch. not enough O2 or not enough blood flow.

hypoxemia

26

_____ refers to an inadequacy in the amount of oxygen being delivered to the cells.

hypoxia

27

signs of mild to moderate hypoxia

tachypnea (increased RR)
dyspnea (SOB)
pale, cool, clammy
tachycardia (increased HR)
elevation in BP
restless and agitation (from hypoxic brain cells)
disorientation and confusion (high CO2)
H/A

28

signs of severe hypoxia:

tachypnea
dyspnea
cyanosis
tachycardia
severe confusion
loss of coordination
sleepy appearance
head bobbing
slow reaction time
altered mental status
seizure

29

signs of an open airway:

air can be felt and heard moving in and out of the mouth and nose

the Pt is speaking in full sentences or with little difficulty

the sound of the voice is normal for the Pt

30

breathing sound that occurs when the upper airway is partially obstructed by the tongue or by relaxed tissues in the pharynx

snoring

31

breath sound that occurs when the muscles around the larynx spasm and narrow the opening to the trachea.

crowing

32

breath sound that usually indicates the presence of blood, vomitus, secretions, or other liquid in the airway.

gurgling

33

breath sound that is harsh, high-pithched and heard during inspiration. it is a characteristic of a significant upper airway obstruction from swelling in the larynx.

stridor

34

examples of PTs who require head-tilt, chin-lift maneuver:

unresponsive (no spinal trauma)
cardiac arrest (not due to trauma)
not breathing (no signs of trauma)

35

the ______ of air in the lungs between respirations.

residual volume

36

the amount of air breathed in that reaches the alveoli

alveolar ventilation

37

a condition where the Pt is working harder to breathe

respiratory distress

38

ventilation rate for child with a pulse:

once every 3-5sec

39

ventilation rate for adult with a pulse:

once every 5-6sec

40

ventilation rate for newborn infant with a pulse:

once ever 1-1.5sec

41

signs of inadequate breathing:

altered mental status
inadiquate RR
poor chest rise and fall
fatigue from increased work of breathing

42

the indications for CPAP (continueous positive airway pressre) for the Pt in moderate to sever respiratory distress or early respiratory failure, but who is alert and awake enough to obey commands, maintain his own airway, and continue to breathe on his own, include:

congestive heart failure (CHF)

pulmonary edema (fluid around and in the alveoli from a high hydrostatic pressure in the pulmonary capillaries)

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

asthma

pneumonia

43

CPAP is contraindicated in Pts with :

apnea, resp arrest, or agonal resp

GCS

44

FROPVD

flow-restricted, oxygen-powered ventilation device

45

a surgical opening in the front of the neck that may be permanent or temporary.

stoma

46

an incision in the windpipe made to relieve an obstruction to breathing

tracheostomy

47

a curved hollow tube made of rubber, plastic, or metal that is inserted into the stoma to help hold it open

tracheostomy tube

48

laryngectomy

all or part of the Pt's larynx has been removed.

Decks in EMT - Basic - Prehostpital Emergency Care 10th Edition Class (44):