Flashcards in Chapter 10-Circulation & Respiration Deck (141):
Blood is pumped away from the heart through the:
Blood is pumped away from the heart through the arteries, and it moves back to the heart through the:
The vessels which link the larger vessels are the microscopic:
About 55% of the total blood volume is a liquid called:
45% of the blood consists of what three things?
red blood cells
white blood cells
What is the most plentiful of the blood proteins, and is manufactured in the liver and helps you regulate the amount of water in the blood?
What are made in the liver as well as in lymph tissue, and are a broad category of blood proteins that help to transport fats throughout the body and help fight infections?
What is a blood protein made in the liver, and helps in the clotting of blood?
What are the three blood proteins that are all created in the liver?
If a person loses too much blood or plasma as a result of an injury or a burn, the body's blood pressure may fall to critical low, causing a condition known as:
What is a master of design for doing its job of carrying oxygen?
Red blood cell, or erythrocyte
The cytoplasm of red blood cells contains _____________, a special iron containing blood protein which binds easily to oxygen and gives its characteristics red color.
What is a disorder resulting from too little oxygen being transported to body cells?
A unique disease of the erythrocytes is____________, a genetic disease caused by a genetic defect in the hemoglobin molecules that causes them to clump together into elongated crystals under certain conditions.
Surplus red blood cells are stored in the __________ until they are needed.
What is a hand-sized organ located in the abdominal cavity behind the stomach, and supplies the body with stored red blood cells whenever it needs extra oxygen-carriers, such as during exercise or when moving from sea level to the mountains?
The blood contains several kinds of ____________, which are produced in the bone marrow and the lymph nodes.
White blood cells, or leukocytes
What is a form of cancer in which white blood cells are produced in uncontrollable numbers?
The job of patrolling your 60,000 miles of blood vessels for leaks belongs to your _______, tiny disk-shaped cell fragments produced in the bone marrow that serve as roving patch kits.
In large blood vessels or in areas of more extensive damage, a process known as ______, is used to seal the break.
If the blood clot is on the surface of the skin, a ________ develops, and healing begins along the perimeter of the wound.
An inherited disease called __________ results in the inability to form blood clots.
The heart, the blood vessels, and the blood they contain all make up the:
Red blood cells contain "identification tags;" these tags are referred to as ___________ because they trigger the immune system to attack the red blood cells when the wrong types of blood are mixed, causing the cells to clump together or agglutinate.
Antigens or agglutinogens
Anyone can receive what type of blood because its red blood cells have neither A nor B "tags" to alarm the recipient's immune system?
Type O blood
People with type O blood are sometimes called _________ because they can donate to people of any blood type.
What blood type individual can receive any type of blood because neither of these "tags" alarm his immune system?
Type AB blood
People with type AB blood are sometimes called ______________, because neither A nor B "tags" alarm his immune system.
People that contain the "identification tag" known as the Rh factor are said to be:
People who lack the "identification tag" known as Rh positive are said to be:
Who was the seventeenth-century Englishman who was the first to describe the circulation of blood accurately, and called the heart "the sovereign of the body"?
The heart is encased within a tough white sac called the __________, which helps support and protect the heart.
Internally, the main features of the heart are its four hollow spaces, or:
The pumping mechanism of the heart consists of two ventricles and two thin-walled upper chambers, called:
The pumping mechanism of the heart consists of two atria and two thick-walled lower chambers called:
A thick vertical wall called the __________ divides the left atrium and left ventricle from the right atrium and right ventricle.
The walls of the heart's four chambers can be divided into three layers; the most important is the ___________, which contains the muscles of the heart.
Lining the interior of the heart's chambers is the _________, which provides a smooth coating for the heart's interior.
The outside of the heart is with a layer of slippery tissue called the __________, which allows the heart to move easily within the pericardial sac as it beats.
What are the three layers of the heart?
Blood is prevented from flowing in the wrong direction by means of four ______, that are strategically located in the heart.
Two of the valves of the heart are known as ________ because they allow blood to flow from each atrium into the corresponding ventricle.
What kind of valve of the heart connects the left atrium and left ventricle?
What kind of valve of the heart connects the right atrium and right ventricle?
Two valves of the heart are known as ________ because each of their three cusps is shaped somewhat like the crescent moon.
What kind of valve of the heart allows blood to exit the left ventricle and enter the aorta?
Aortic semilunar valve
What kind of valve of the heart allows blood to exit the right ventricle and enter the pulmonary arteries?
Pulmonary semilunar valve
Deoxygenated blood returns to the heart through the __________, which is the body's largest veins.
What returns blood from the upper part of the body?
Superior vena cava
What returns blood from the lower part of the body?
Inferior vena cava
What kind of artery transports blood from the heart to the lungs?
What travels back to the heart from the lungs through four pulmonary veins and enters the left atrium and left ventricle, inflating them?
Oxygenated blood travels back to the heart from the lungs through four __________-two for each lung-and enters the left atrium and left ventricle, inflating them.
Blood enters the blood vessels that pass over the surface of the heart and into its interior by means of the two ___________, which branch from the base of the aorta.
After supplying the cardiac muscle tissues with fuel and oxygen, blood leaves these tissues through blood vessels known as ___________, which collect the blood from the tissues of the heart and carry it to a larger vein called the coronary sinus, which empties into the right atrium.
When an obstruction large enough to block a major branch of a coronary artery, it can block the supply of blood to a large portion of heart muscle; when this occurs, a person is said to have suffered a _______, a type of heart failure caused by a blockage of blood flow to the heart muscles.
What condition occurs when the heart ceases to beat and instead twitches randomly?
Many heart repairs require the aid of a __________ because the heart must be stopped and often reopened.
The simplest type of coronary artery repair is __________, a procedure which does not involve opening the chest.
Sometimes the clogs in the coronary arteries are too extensive to be helped by angioplasty and a _____________ must be performed.
Coronary artery bypass
In what kind of heart surgery does the surgeon remove a faulty heart valve and replaces it with an artificial valve or with a valve from a pig's heart?
What kind of surgery becomes necessary when he heart is damaged beyond repair?
What is the body's major artery?
The contracting and pumping phase of the heart action is called:
The relaxing and filling phase of the heart is know as:
The cardiac cycle is perceived as a:
An abnormal rushing or blowing sound produced by valve damage is called a:
What kind of muscle cells are short, branched, and contain only one nucleus per cell?
Cardiac muscle cells
What kind of muscle cells lack the fuel and oxygen storage systems of skeletal muscle cells in order to make room for more mitochondria "power plants"?
Cardiac muscle cells
One of the differences of cardiac muscle and skeletal muscles is that cardiac muscles are ___________, which means that the cardiac muscles will beat even if separated from the heart.
The beating of the heart is regulated by a system of special heart cells known as the:
Cardiac conduction system
The master control unit of the heart is the:
Sinoatrial node or S-A node
What is the source of the electrical impulses that stimulate the heart to beat and for this reason it is commonly referred to as the pacemaker of the heart?
Sinoatrial node or S-A node
What is the doctor that specializes in the heart and its disorders?
A cardiologist can study the electrical activity of the heart by means of an ___________, which detects the tiny electrical currents in the heart by means of electrodes taped to the patient's chest, arms, and legs.
What are the three main kids if blood vessels?
What kind of blood vessel carries blood away from the heart?
What kind of blood vessel brings blood to the heart?
What kind of tiny blood vessel links the arteries and veins and are the functional units of the circulatory system?
As arteries branch deep into the body, they form smaller blood vessels known as _________, which branch into myriads of microscopic capillaries.
Capillaries merge to form small blood vessels known as _________, which, in turn, become veins.
The movement of blood through all parts of the body except the lungs is called:
The ________, which leaves the heart from the left ventricle, branches into smaller arteries which enter every organ of the body.
Branching from the aortic arch are the two ______________, which carry blood to the head and brain.
What kind of arteries branch off to carry blood to the arms?
What kind of arteries enter the legs to form the femoral arteries, which supply the legs with blood?
Common iliac arteries
The common iliac arteries enter the legs to form the _____________, which supply the legs with blood.
Smaller veins which connect with the venae cavae include the _____________, which drain the head.
What kind of veins drain the arms?
What kind of veins drains the legs?
The movement of blood between the heart and the lungs is known as:
The movement of blood from the digestive organs to the liver is called _____________; it is part of the larger systemic circulation system.
What kind of vein carries blood to the liver from the digestive tract?
Hepatic portal vein
What kind of vein returns blood to the inferior vena cava from the liver?
The movement of blood from the body organs through the kidneys is known as:
What is a branch of the aorta that carries blood to the kidneys, where the blood is filtered and various wastes are removed?
What vein returns blood from the kidneys to the inferior vena cava?
Most heart attacks result from a blockage of the arteries caused by a slowly developing disease called _____________, or "hardening of the arteries."
Deposits of fatty material and calcium build up to form _____________, which makes the linings of of the blood vessels rough.
Liver infections known as _____________ can be acquired by several means, including skin contact, contaminated food, and blood transfusions; it is especially common among intravenous drug users.
Alcohol abuse can cause ___________ of the liver, the buildup of fatty deposits and fibrous tissue in the liver.
The amount of force that blood exerts upon the walls of the blood vessels is known as:
An individual whose resting blood pressure exceeds either 130 mmHg systolic or 90 mmHg diastolic is suffering from _______________, known medically as hypertension.
High blood pressure
What is the medical term for high blood pressure?
The rhythmic change of pressure in your arteries is known as your:
The leading cause of death among Americans is ______________, which actually refers to several conditions of the heart, veins, and arteries, including hypertension, atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, and stroke.
What are the two main types of circulation?
What system of your body functions to supply the body with oxygen and to rid it of excess carbon dioxide?
The primary organs of your respiratory system are your two ________, large, spongy organs located inside the thoracic cavity on opposite sides of your heart.
The process of breathing-inhaling and exhaling air-and gas exchange is called:
The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the blood cells and the tissue cells is called:
What kind of respiration takes place within the cells and is the process of releasing energy from food?
What are the irregularly shaped pockets, or air spaces, in the nasal cavity?
What is the opening of the trachea?
What is the flap of tissue which covers the opening of the trachea?
Inside the boxlike larynx are two fold of elastic tissue called ________, which produce sound for speech.
The trachea divides into two branches, the ________, when it enters the thoracic cavity.
Each branch of the trachea is called a ___________, and one of which enters each lung.
As each bronchus enters a lung, it divides into many branches called:
The bronchial tubes branch many times to form still smaller tubes called:
The smallest bronchioles end in small saclike structures called:
The inflammation of the lining of the bronchial tubes is called:
Severe bronchitis can lead to ___________, a bacterial or viral infection of the linings in the lungs which causes the lungs to secrete large quantities of fluid.
What is an allergic condition characterized by spasms of the bronchial tube muscles, which cause the tubes to suddenly constrict, making breathing difficult?
A double membrane called the ___________ lines the inside of the rib cage, providing lubrication to prevent friction between the ribs and the delicate surface of the lungs.
Sometimes the pleural membrane becomes inflamed, a painful condition known as:
What is the thick sheet of muscle that separates the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity?
Speech originates in the throat, inside a delicately designed organ called the ________, or "voice box," a special enlargement of the trachea.
Several _____________ act together to move the vocal cords in an open-closed movement.
What are the muscles attached to the ribs and breastbone called?
What is the process where air rushes into the lungs to equalize the pressure in the chest cavity and the lungs?
What is the process where air rushes from the lungs to equalize the pressure in the chest cavity and lungs?
When you inhale and exhale as much as you can, that volume is called the:
When we breathe normally, we inhale and exhale approximately 30 cubic inches; this normal amount is called the:
The most common respiratory disease of all is the:
What common respiratory disease is caused by viruses that infect the respiratory system, causing fever, aching muscles, headache, and chest pain?
What kind of respiratory disease is caused by a slow-growing bacterium that infects the lungs?
What is a progressive deterioration of the alveoli caused by malfunctioning enzymes, and can also result from genetic causes, chronic bronchitis, and continuous exposure to smoke or other irritants?
What is one of the most common hereditary diseases in the United States that is caused by a genetic defect that affects the chlorine gates of lung cell membranes, hindering the lungs' defenses against bacterial infection and causing them to fill with a thick, gummy mucous?
What is the most devastating respiratory disease that is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal lung cells?