Chapter 10-Circulation & Respiration Flashcards Preview

Biology > Chapter 10-Circulation & Respiration > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 10-Circulation & Respiration Deck (141):
1

Blood is pumped away from the heart through the:

arteries

2

Blood is pumped away from the heart through the arteries, and it moves back to the heart through the:

veins

3

The vessels which link the larger vessels are the microscopic:

capillaries

4

About 55% of the total blood volume is a liquid called:

Plasma

5

45% of the blood consists of what three things?

red blood cells
white blood cells
Platelets

6

What is the most plentiful of the blood proteins, and is manufactured in the liver and helps you regulate the amount of water in the blood?

albumin

7

What are made in the liver as well as in lymph tissue, and are a broad category of blood proteins that help to transport fats throughout the body and help fight infections?

Globulins

8

What is a blood protein made in the liver, and helps in the clotting of blood?

Fibrinogen

9

What are the three blood proteins that are all created in the liver?

Albumin
Globulins
Fibrinogen

10

If a person loses too much blood or plasma as a result of an injury or a burn, the body's blood pressure may fall to critical low, causing a condition known as:

Circulatory shock

11

What is a master of design for doing its job of carrying oxygen?

Red blood cell, or erythrocyte

12

The cytoplasm of red blood cells contains _____________, a special iron containing blood protein which binds easily to oxygen and gives its characteristics red color.

Hemoglobin

13

What is a disorder resulting from too little oxygen being transported to body cells?

Anemia

14

A unique disease of the erythrocytes is____________, a genetic disease caused by a genetic defect in the hemoglobin molecules that causes them to clump together into elongated crystals under certain conditions.

Sickle-cell anemia

15

Surplus red blood cells are stored in the __________ until they are needed.

Spleen

16

What is a hand-sized organ located in the abdominal cavity behind the stomach, and supplies the body with stored red blood cells whenever it needs extra oxygen-carriers, such as during exercise or when moving from sea level to the mountains?

Spleen

17

The blood contains several kinds of ____________, which are produced in the bone marrow and the lymph nodes.

White blood cells, or leukocytes

18

What is a form of cancer in which white blood cells are produced in uncontrollable numbers?

Leukemia

19

The job of patrolling your 60,000 miles of blood vessels for leaks belongs to your _______, tiny disk-shaped cell fragments produced in the bone marrow that serve as roving patch kits.

Platelets

20

In large blood vessels or in areas of more extensive damage, a process known as ______, is used to seal the break.

Clotting

21

If the blood clot is on the surface of the skin, a ________ develops, and healing begins along the perimeter of the wound.

Scab

22

An inherited disease called __________ results in the inability to form blood clots.

Hemophilia

23

The heart, the blood vessels, and the blood they contain all make up the:

Cardiovascular system

24

Red blood cells contain "identification tags;" these tags are referred to as ___________ because they trigger the immune system to attack the red blood cells when the wrong types of blood are mixed, causing the cells to clump together or agglutinate.

Antigens or agglutinogens

25

Anyone can receive what type of blood because its red blood cells have neither A nor B "tags" to alarm the recipient's immune system?

Type O blood

26

People with type O blood are sometimes called _________ because they can donate to people of any blood type.

Universal donors

27

What blood type individual can receive any type of blood because neither of these "tags" alarm his immune system?

Type AB blood

28

People with type AB blood are sometimes called ______________, because neither A nor B "tags" alarm his immune system.

Universal recipients

29

People that contain the "identification tag" known as the Rh factor are said to be:

Rh positive

30

People who lack the "identification tag" known as Rh positive are said to be:

Rh negative

31

Who was the seventeenth-century Englishman who was the first to describe the circulation of blood accurately, and called the heart "the sovereign of the body"?

William Harvey

32

The heart is encased within a tough white sac called the __________, which helps support and protect the heart.

Pericardium

33

Internally, the main features of the heart are its four hollow spaces, or:

Chambers

34

The pumping mechanism of the heart consists of two ventricles and two thin-walled upper chambers, called:

Atria

35

The pumping mechanism of the heart consists of two atria and two thick-walled lower chambers called:

Ventricles

36

A thick vertical wall called the __________ divides the left atrium and left ventricle from the right atrium and right ventricle.

Septum

37

The walls of the heart's four chambers can be divided into three layers; the most important is the ___________, which contains the muscles of the heart.

Myocardium

38

Lining the interior of the heart's chambers is the _________, which provides a smooth coating for the heart's interior.

Endocardium

39

The outside of the heart is with a layer of slippery tissue called the __________, which allows the heart to move easily within the pericardial sac as it beats.

Epicardium

40

What are the three layers of the heart?

Myocardium
Endocardium
Epicardium

41

Blood is prevented from flowing in the wrong direction by means of four ______, that are strategically located in the heart.

Valves

42

Two of the valves of the heart are known as ________ because they allow blood to flow from each atrium into the corresponding ventricle.

A-V valves

43

What kind of valve of the heart connects the left atrium and left ventricle?

Bicuspid valve

44

What kind of valve of the heart connects the right atrium and right ventricle?

Tricuspid valve

45

Two valves of the heart are known as ________ because each of their three cusps is shaped somewhat like the crescent moon.

Semilunar valve

46

What kind of valve of the heart allows blood to exit the left ventricle and enter the aorta?

Aortic semilunar valve

47

What kind of valve of the heart allows blood to exit the right ventricle and enter the pulmonary arteries?

Pulmonary semilunar valve

48

Deoxygenated blood returns to the heart through the __________, which is the body's largest veins.

Venae cavae

49

What returns blood from the upper part of the body?

Superior vena cava

50

What returns blood from the lower part of the body?

Inferior vena cava

51

What kind of artery transports blood from the heart to the lungs?

Pulmonary artery

52

What travels back to the heart from the lungs through four pulmonary veins and enters the left atrium and left ventricle, inflating them?

Oxygenated blood

53

Oxygenated blood travels back to the heart from the lungs through four __________-two for each lung-and enters the left atrium and left ventricle, inflating them.

Pulmonary veins

54

Blood enters the blood vessels that pass over the surface of the heart and into its interior by means of the two ___________, which branch from the base of the aorta.

Coronary arteries

55

After supplying the cardiac muscle tissues with fuel and oxygen, blood leaves these tissues through blood vessels known as ___________, which collect the blood from the tissues of the heart and carry it to a larger vein called the coronary sinus, which empties into the right atrium.

Cardiac veins

56

When an obstruction large enough to block a major branch of a coronary artery, it can block the supply of blood to a large portion of heart muscle; when this occurs, a person is said to have suffered a _______, a type of heart failure caused by a blockage of blood flow to the heart muscles.

Heart attack

57

What condition occurs when the heart ceases to beat and instead twitches randomly?

Ventricular fibrillation

58

Many heart repairs require the aid of a __________ because the heart must be stopped and often reopened.

Heart-lung machine

59

The simplest type of coronary artery repair is __________, a procedure which does not involve opening the chest.

Angioplasty

60

Sometimes the clogs in the coronary arteries are too extensive to be helped by angioplasty and a _____________ must be performed.

Coronary artery bypass

61

In what kind of heart surgery does the surgeon remove a faulty heart valve and replaces it with an artificial valve or with a valve from a pig's heart?

Valve-replacement surgery

62

What kind of surgery becomes necessary when he heart is damaged beyond repair?

Heart transplant

63

What is the body's major artery?

Aorta

64

The contracting and pumping phase of the heart action is called:

Systole

65

The relaxing and filling phase of the heart is know as:

Diastole

66

The cardiac cycle is perceived as a:

Heartbeat

67

An abnormal rushing or blowing sound produced by valve damage is called a:

Heart murmur

68

What kind of muscle cells are short, branched, and contain only one nucleus per cell?

Cardiac muscle cells

69

What kind of muscle cells lack the fuel and oxygen storage systems of skeletal muscle cells in order to make room for more mitochondria "power plants"?

Cardiac muscle cells

70

One of the differences of cardiac muscle and skeletal muscles is that cardiac muscles are ___________, which means that the cardiac muscles will beat even if separated from the heart.

Self-exciting

71

The beating of the heart is regulated by a system of special heart cells known as the:

Cardiac conduction system

72

The master control unit of the heart is the:

Sinoatrial node or S-A node

73

What is the source of the electrical impulses that stimulate the heart to beat and for this reason it is commonly referred to as the pacemaker of the heart?

Sinoatrial node or S-A node

74

What is the doctor that specializes in the heart and its disorders?

Cardiologist

75

A cardiologist can study the electrical activity of the heart by means of an ___________, which detects the tiny electrical currents in the heart by means of electrodes taped to the patient's chest, arms, and legs.

Electrocardiogram

76

What are the three main kids if blood vessels?

Arteries
Veins
Capillaries

77

What kind of blood vessel carries blood away from the heart?

Artery

78

What kind of blood vessel brings blood to the heart?

Vein

79

What kind of tiny blood vessel links the arteries and veins and are the functional units of the circulatory system?

Capillaries

80

As arteries branch deep into the body, they form smaller blood vessels known as _________, which branch into myriads of microscopic capillaries.

Arterioles

81

Capillaries merge to form small blood vessels known as _________, which, in turn, become veins.

Venules

82

The movement of blood through all parts of the body except the lungs is called:

Systemic circulation

83

The ________, which leaves the heart from the left ventricle, branches into smaller arteries which enter every organ of the body.

Aorta

84

Branching from the aortic arch are the two ______________, which carry blood to the head and brain.

Carotid arteries

85

What kind of arteries branch off to carry blood to the arms?

Subclavian arteries

86

What kind of arteries enter the legs to form the femoral arteries, which supply the legs with blood?

Common iliac arteries

87

The common iliac arteries enter the legs to form the _____________, which supply the legs with blood.

Femoral arteries

88

Smaller veins which connect with the venae cavae include the _____________, which drain the head.

Jugular veins

89

What kind of veins drain the arms?

Subclavian veins

90

What kind of veins drains the legs?

Femoral veins

91

The movement of blood between the heart and the lungs is known as:

Pulmonary circulation

92

The movement of blood from the digestive organs to the liver is called _____________; it is part of the larger systemic circulation system.

Portal circulation

93

What kind of vein carries blood to the liver from the digestive tract?

Hepatic portal vein

94

What kind of vein returns blood to the inferior vena cava from the liver?

Hepatic vein

95

The movement of blood from the body organs through the kidneys is known as:

Renal circulation

96

What is a branch of the aorta that carries blood to the kidneys, where the blood is filtered and various wastes are removed?

Renal artery

97

What vein returns blood from the kidneys to the inferior vena cava?

Renal vein

98

Most heart attacks result from a blockage of the arteries caused by a slowly developing disease called _____________, or "hardening of the arteries."

Atherosclerosis

99

Deposits of fatty material and calcium build up to form _____________, which makes the linings of of the blood vessels rough.

Plaque

100

Liver infections known as _____________ can be acquired by several means, including skin contact, contaminated food, and blood transfusions; it is especially common among intravenous drug users.

Viral hepatitis

101

Alcohol abuse can cause ___________ of the liver, the buildup of fatty deposits and fibrous tissue in the liver.

Cirrhosis

102

The amount of force that blood exerts upon the walls of the blood vessels is known as:

Blood pressure

103

An individual whose resting blood pressure exceeds either 130 mmHg systolic or 90 mmHg diastolic is suffering from _______________, known medically as hypertension.

High blood pressure

104

What is the medical term for high blood pressure?

Hypertension

105

The rhythmic change of pressure in your arteries is known as your:

Pulse

106

The leading cause of death among Americans is ______________, which actually refers to several conditions of the heart, veins, and arteries, including hypertension, atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, and stroke.

Cardiovascular disease

107

What are the two main types of circulation?

Systemic circulation
Pulmonary circulation

108

What system of your body functions to supply the body with oxygen and to rid it of excess carbon dioxide?

Respiratory system

109

The primary organs of your respiratory system are your two ________, large, spongy organs located inside the thoracic cavity on opposite sides of your heart.

Lungs

110

The process of breathing-inhaling and exhaling air-and gas exchange is called:

External respiration

111

The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the blood cells and the tissue cells is called:

Internal respiration

112

What kind of respiration takes place within the cells and is the process of releasing energy from food?

Cellular respiration

113

What are the irregularly shaped pockets, or air spaces, in the nasal cavity?

Nasal meatuses

114

What is the opening of the trachea?

Glottis

115

What is the flap of tissue which covers the opening of the trachea?

Epiglottis

116

Inside the boxlike larynx are two fold of elastic tissue called ________, which produce sound for speech.

Vocal cords

117

The trachea divides into two branches, the ________, when it enters the thoracic cavity.

Bronchi

118

Each branch of the trachea is called a ___________, and one of which enters each lung.

Bronchus

119

As each bronchus enters a lung, it divides into many branches called:

Bronchial tubes

120

The bronchial tubes branch many times to form still smaller tubes called:

Bronchioles

121

The smallest bronchioles end in small saclike structures called:

Alveoli

122

The inflammation of the lining of the bronchial tubes is called:

Bronchitis

123

Severe bronchitis can lead to ___________, a bacterial or viral infection of the linings in the lungs which causes the lungs to secrete large quantities of fluid.

Pneumonia

124

What is an allergic condition characterized by spasms of the bronchial tube muscles, which cause the tubes to suddenly constrict, making breathing difficult?

Bronchial asthma

125

A double membrane called the ___________ lines the inside of the rib cage, providing lubrication to prevent friction between the ribs and the delicate surface of the lungs.

Pleural membrane

126

Sometimes the pleural membrane becomes inflamed, a painful condition known as:

Pleurisy

127

What is the thick sheet of muscle that separates the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity?

Diaphragm

128

Speech originates in the throat, inside a delicately designed organ called the ________, or "voice box," a special enlargement of the trachea.

Larynx

129

Several _____________ act together to move the vocal cords in an open-closed movement.

Laryngeal muscles

130

What are the muscles attached to the ribs and breastbone called?

Intercostal muscles

131

What is the process where air rushes into the lungs to equalize the pressure in the chest cavity and the lungs?

Inhalation

132

What is the process where air rushes from the lungs to equalize the pressure in the chest cavity and lungs?

Exhalation

133

When you inhale and exhale as much as you can, that volume is called the:

Vital capacity

134

When we breathe normally, we inhale and exhale approximately 30 cubic inches; this normal amount is called the:

Tidal volume

135

The most common respiratory disease of all is the:

Common cold

136

What common respiratory disease is caused by viruses that infect the respiratory system, causing fever, aching muscles, headache, and chest pain?

Influenza

137

What kind of respiratory disease is caused by a slow-growing bacterium that infects the lungs?

Tuberculosis

138

What is a progressive deterioration of the alveoli caused by malfunctioning enzymes, and can also result from genetic causes, chronic bronchitis, and continuous exposure to smoke or other irritants?

Emphysema

139

What is one of the most common hereditary diseases in the United States that is caused by a genetic defect that affects the chlorine gates of lung cell membranes, hindering the lungs' defenses against bacterial infection and causing them to fill with a thick, gummy mucous?

Cystic fibrosis

140

What is the most devastating respiratory disease that is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal lung cells?

Lung cancer

141

What part of the brain controls your breathing?

Medulla Oblongata