Chapter 10 - Emotional and Social Development in Early Childhood Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 10 - Emotional and Social Development in Early Childhood Deck (61)
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1

Erikson’s Theory: Initiative versus Guilt

in Erikson’s theory, the psychological conflict of early childhood
Want a child to have a healthy sense of initiative, and not be too guilt-ridden

Young children have a new sense of purposefulness and make strides in conscience development

Play as a means through which young children learn about themselves and their social world

2

Self-understanding



The development of language enables children to talk about their own subjective experiences

Self-concept
Self-esteem

3

Self-concept

the set of attributes, abilities, attitudes, and values that an individual believes defines who he or she is
Attachment to care giver is important (elaborative reminiscing leads to better autobiographical memory which helps sense of self-concept.)

4

Foundations of Self-Concept

Preschoolers tend to define themselves in concrete terms, based on physical attributes, abilities, and possessions
• They often understand the meaning of words such as “shy”, but tend not to apply trait labels to themselves
• They can identify their psychological traits in forced-choice paradigms

5

Self-esteem

Self-esteem - the judgments individuals make about their own worth and the feelings associated with those judgments

Among the most important aspects of self-development because they affect our emotional experiences, future behavior, and long term psychological adjustment.

By age 4, preschoolers already have several self-judgments for different domains
They have difficulty distinguishing between their actual and desired competence, though
The typical high self-esteem of preschoolers seems to be adaptive
• It helps them maintain a sense of initiative during a period of development in which many new skills must be mastered

6

Emotional competence

Emotional competence - emotional abilities such as
• Emotional understanding
• Emotional self-regulation
• Development of self-conscious emotions and empathy

7

Understanding Emotion

Being able to talk about feelings
Being able to respond appropriately to others’ emotional signals

cognitive
• Preschoolers refer to causes, consequences, and behavioural signs of emotion
• Preschoolers have some ability to predict future actions of a playmate based on emotional expression
• Preschoolers have difficulty in situations that provide conflicting cues to emotions
• They know that thinking and feeling are connected

social
• Parent who label emotions, explain them with warmth, use more emotional words, prompting of emotional thoughts, frequently agnonage child’s emotions
• Resolving disagreements where they discussed emotions, negotiated and compromised.
• Make believe play
• They may try to alter another’s emotion

8

Changes in the way preschoolers refer to causes, consequences, and behavioural signs of emotion

They become more accurate and complex in their judgments over time
By age 4 to 5, they correctly judge the causes of many basic emotions
Preschoolers tend to emphasize external factors over internal states in their explanation, but this balance changes with age

9

Why do preschoolers have difficulty in situations that provide conflicting cues to emotions

As with other tasks, we see centration
Over time, they get better at finding potential explanations to resolve conflicting cues

10

Parents can scaffold children’s emotional understanding by:

• By labelling emotions in conversations, and talking about their causes
• By acknowledging the preschooler’s emotions
• By talking about diverse emotions
• By talking about feelings and reaching compromises during family conflicts
• By promoting secure attachment, which is related to warmer and more elaborative parent-child narratives
• By encouraging make-believe play with siblings, which is related to increased understanding of emotions

11

Emotional self-regulation

Emotional self-regulation - the ability to control the expression of emotion
• Also, to some extent, the ability to control the level of an emotion

Increases as children learn strategies for regulation, including verbal strategies that become possible as their language skills develop

Effortful control, especially the ability to inhibit impulses and shift attention, is also very important in managing emotions

Learn from watching parents and verbal guidence

12

Effortful control in managing emotions

Effortful control, especially the ability to inhibit impulses and shift attention, is also very important in managing emotions
• 3-year-olds who can distract themselves when frustrated tend to be cooperative at school-age
• Effortful control at 3 predicts skill at portraying an emotion that isn’t felt, as well “masks”

13

Children who experience negative emotions intensely

• Have greater difficulty inhibiting their feelings and shifting attention away from disturbing events
• Are more likely to be anxious and fearful, or to respond with irritation to others’ distress
• Are more likely to react angrily or aggressively when frustrated
• Are more likely to get along poorly with teachers and peers

14

Self-Conscious Emotions

Self-conscious emotions emerge, and are linked to self-evaluation by age 3
At this age, though, children still depend on adults to indicate what situations merit different self-conscious emotions

More sensitivity to praise or blame and the possibility of such feedback.

Beginning in early childhood intense feelings of shame is associated with feelings of feelings personal inadequacy and maladjustment, withdrawal and depression as well as intense anger and aggression

Guilt when it is appropriate and not accompanied by shame is related to good adjustment. It helps children resist harmful impulses and motivates a child to repair damage

15

When parents judge a child’s worth based on performance of a task, we often see

• More intense self-conscious emotions
• More shame in failure situations
• More pride after success

16

When parents focus on effort and strategy, rather than the child’s worth, we see

• More moderate, healthy levels of pride and shame
• Greater persistence at difficult tasks

17

Among Western children, shame and guilt is associated with

Among Western children, shame is associated with
• Feelings of personal inadequacy
• Maladjustment—withdrawal, depression, and intense anger and aggression toward people who participated in the shame-evoking situation
Guilt is associated with good adjustment if
• It occurs in appropriate circumstances
• Isn’t accompanied by shame
Guilt may help children resist harmful impulses, and to repair damage when they have misbehaved

18

Prosocial, or altruistic behaviour

Prosocial, or altruistic behaviour - actions that benefit another person without any expected reward for the self

This can be encouraged or discouraged by empathy, depending on how the person experiences it

Preschoolers start to use more words to communicate empathic feelings – indicates more reflective level of empathy.

19

Empathy can lead to

• Sympathy - feelings of concern or sorrow for another’s plight
• Personal distress (aka self-oriented distress)

20

A child who is sociable, assertive, and good at regulating emotion is more likely to…

A child who is less skilled at regulating emotion is more likely to…

A child who is sociable, assertive, and good at regulating emotion is more likely to display sympathy and prosocial behaviour
• Helping, sharing, and comforting

A child who is less skilled at regulating emotion is more likely to react with personal distress and to be overwhelmed by these feelings
• Frowning, lip biting, increased heart rate, and a sharp increase in brain-wave activity in the right hemisphere

21

Three factors that help the development peer relations in early childhood

During early childhood, children tend to become
• More self-aware
• More effective at communicating
• Better at perspective-taking

22

Types of play
3 step

1. Nonsocial activity - unoccupied, onlooker behaviour and solitary play

2. Parallel play - a limited form of social participation in which a child plays near other children with similar materials but does not try to influence their behaviour

3. Associative play - a form of true social interaction, in which children engage in separate activities but interact by exchanging toys and commenting on one another’s behaviour

And/or

Cooperative play - a type of social interaction in which children orient toward a common goal, such as acting out a make-believe theme or working on a project together

Later steps do not replace earlier ones.

23

With nonsocial activity in particular, the type of activity is important

Wandering, hovering near peers (without interacting), and functional play involving immature, repetitive motor action, can be cause for concern
• Many parents will then be overprotective and critical, rather than patiently encouraging their children to approach peers

Constructive activities like building, art, puzzles, or reading, are not signs of poor adjustment

24

Sociodramatic play

An advanced form of coopertave play
Becomes common over preschool years
Supports cognitive, emotional and social development

25

First Friendships

Preschoolers define friendships differently from older children
• They see a friend as someone you like and spend much time playing with, but don’t necessarily see it as something involving trust and permanence

They are somewhat similar to older children and adults in how they treat, and are affected by friends
• They give and receive more reinforcement with friends
• They play more cooperatively with friends
• They adjust to kindergarten more favourably if they have friends in their class

We see more cooperative participation in classroom activities and more self-directed completion of learning tasks when kindergartners make friends more easily and are accepted by their classmates
• Keep in mind, though, that this is correlational

26

Social problem solving

Generating and applying strategies that prevent or resolve disagreements, resulting in outcomes that are both acceptable to others and beneficial to the self.

27

Parental Influences on Early Peer Relations

Direct influences on peer relations
• Arranging informal peer play
• Offering guidance on how to act towards others

Indirect influences on peer relations
• Security of attachment
• Parent-child play

28

Induction
(The Psychoanalytic Perspective)

Induction - a type of discipline in which an adult helps make the child aware of feelings by pointing out the effects of the child’s misbehaviour on others.

When warm, accepting parents use induction to reason with their children at levels their children can understand, we see greater moral maturity.

Works in 4 ways
- Gives children information about how to behave that they can use in the future
- Encourages empathy and sympathetic concern which motivates pro-social behavior
- Giving children reasons for changing their behavior encourages them to adopt moral standards because those standards make sense.
- May form a script of the negative emotional consequences of harming others

29

The child’s characteristics also have an impact on teaching empathy and prosocial behaviour
(The Psychoanalytic Perspective)

The child’s characteristics also have an impact
Twin studies suggest a modest genetic contribution to empathy and prosocial behaviour

Temperament
• Requests, suggestions, and explanations work best with anxious, fearful preschoolers
• With fearless, impulsive children, developing a secure attachment, and combining firm correction of misbehaviour with induction works best

30

teaching empathy and prosocial behaviour
(The Psychoanalytic Perspective)

Induction - a type of discipline in which an adult helps make the child aware of feelings by pointing out the effects of the child’s misbehaviour on others.

Temperament (goodness of fit)
• Requests, suggestions, and explanations work best with anxious, fearful preschoolers
• With fearless, impulsive children, developing a secure attachment, and combining firm correction of misbehaviour with induction works best

Close parent child bond

Inducing empathy-based guilt by explaining to a child that he/she is causing someone else distress can often be helpful

In addition to stopping harmful actions, appropriate levels of guilt can motivate children to attempt to repair damage they’ve caused to others