Chapter 10- Emotional And Social Development In Early Childhood Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 10- Emotional And Social Development In Early Childhood Deck (140):
1

Describe two benefits of play for preschoolers

Play is a means through which young children learn about themselves and their social world. It permits preschoolers to try new skills with little risk of criticism and failure and also creates a small social organization of children who must cooperate to achieve common goals

2

According to Ericsson, what leads to a negative outcome of the initiative-versus-guilt stage?

An overly strict superego that causes children to feel too much guilt because they have been threatened, criticized, and punished excessively by adults. When this happens, preschoolers' exuberant play and bold efforts to master new tasks break down

3

Refers to the set of attributes, abilities, attitudes, and values that an individual believes defines who he or she is. How does this mental representation of the self affect children's development?

Self-concept

Has profound implications for children's emotional and social lives, influencing their preferences for activities and social partners and their vulnerability to stress

4

Preschoolers self-concepts largely consist of:

Observable characteristics, such as their name, physical appearance, possessions, and every day behaviors. Children also describe themselves in terms of typical emotions and attitudes.

For example, they may say "I'm happy when I play with my friends", "I don't like scary TV programs", "I usually do what mommy says "

They do not yet see "I'm helpful "or "I'm shy". Direct references to personality traits must wait for greater cognitive maturity

5

Preschoolers with a secure attachment to their mothers are more/less likely to have a favorable self-concept. Briefly explain why

More likely to describe themselves in favorable terms. Securely attached preschoolers participate in more elaborative parent-child conversations about personally experienced events, which help them understand themselves

6

True or false: preschoolers are unable to view themselves as persisting over time and cannot imagine or plan future events

False

7

Discuss differences in storytelling practices between Chinese and Irish-American parents, and explain the influence on children's self image

Parents in both cultures discussed pleasurable holidays and family excursions in similar ways and with similar frequency. But Chinese parents more often told long stories about the child's misdeeds. These narratives were conveyed with warmth and caring, stressed the impact of misbehavior on others, and often ended with direct teaching of proper behavior. By contrast, in the few instances in which Irish-American stories referred to transgressions, parents downplayed their seriousness, attributing them to the child's spunk and assertiveness

Chinese parents integrated the values of strict discipline and social obligations into their stories, affirming the importance of not disgracing the family and explicitly conveying expectations in the stories conclusion. Chinese adults generally see favorable self-esteem as unimportant or even negative, as impeding the child's willingness to listen and to be corrected. Consistent with this view, the Chinese parents did little to cultivate their child's individuality and used storytelling to guide the child to more socially responsible behavior. By the end of the preschool years, the Chinese child's self image emphasizes membership in the collective and obligations to others

The Irish-American parents rarely do out on Mistines and they cash the child shortcomings in a positive light, perhaps to promote self esteem. Most Americans believe that favorable self-esteem is crucial for healthy development. By the end of the preschool years, the American child's self-image is more autonomous, consisting largely of personal descriptions

8

The judgments we make about our own worth and the feelings associated with those judgments

Self-esteem

9

Preschoolers generally rate their own ability as higher/lower than their actual competence and overestimate/underestimate the difficulty of tasks. Explain why

Higher; underestimate

Because they have difficulty distinguishing between their desired and their actual competence. High self-esteem contributes greatly to preschoolers initiative during a period in which they must master many skills

10

How does high self-esteem help preschoolers master new skills?

It helps them to be enthusiastic and highly motivated. Children with a history of parental criticism of their worth and performance give up easily when faced with the challenge and express shame and despondency after failing

11

Between the ages of two and six, children make strides in the emotional abilities known collectively as _________ ________. List the three ways in which this growth takes place

First, preschoolers gain in emotional understanding, becoming better able to talk about feelings and to respond appropriately to others emotional signals

Second, they become better at emotional self-regulation, in particular, at coping with intense negative emotion

Thirdly, preschoolers more often experience self-conscious emotions and empathy, which contribute to their developing sense of morality

12

True or false: by age 4 to 5, children can correctly judge the causes of many basic emotions

True

13

Do preschoolers recognize that thoughts and feelings are interconnected? explain

Yes, for instance, that a person reminded of a previous sad experience is likely to feel sad. They come up with effective ways to relieve others negative feelings, such as hugging to reduce sadness and they have an impressive ability to interpret, predict, and change others feelings

14

True or false: in situations with conflicting cues about how a person is feeling, preschoolers can easily reconcile this differing information

False, they have difficulty interpreting situations that offer conflicting cues about how a person is feeling. When shown a picture of a happy-faced child with a broken bicycle, four and five-year-olds tended to rely on the emotional expression, "He's happy because he likes to ride his bike "

15

Provide an example of how parents can facilitate children's understanding of emotion

The more mothers label emotions, explain them, and express warmth and enthusiasm when conversing with preschoolers, the more emotion words children use and the better developed their emotional understanding. Maternal prompting of emotional thoughts quote what makes him afraid? Quote is a good predictor of two-year-olds emotion language. For older preschoolers, explanations are more important

Preschoolers whose parents frequently acknowledge their children's emotional reactions and talk about diverse emotions are better able to judge others emotions when tested at later ages

16

List for ways in which emotional knowledge helps children get along with their peers

Knowledge about emotions is related to friendly, considerate behavior, willingness to make amends after harming another, and constructive responses to disputes with age mates. The more preschoolers referred to feelings when interacting with playmates, the better like they are by their peers

17

Provide an example of how language contributes to preschoolers improved emotional self-regulation

By age 3 to 4, children verbalize a variety of strategies for adjusting their emotional arousal to a more comfortable level. For example, they know they can blunt emotions by restricting sensory input such as covering their eyes or ears to block out a scary sight or sound, talking to themselves "Mommy said she'll be back soon ", or changing their goals (deciding that they don't want to play anyway after being excluded from a game)

18

Explain how effortful control helps young children manage emotion

Effortful control, in particular, inhibiting impulses and shifting attention, continues to be vital in managing emotion in early childhood. Three-year-old who can distract themselves one frustrated tend to become cooperative school-age children with a few problem behaviors. By age 3, effortful control predicts children skill at portraying and emotion they do not feel, for example, reacting cheerfully after receiving an undesirable gift

19

What are two characteristics of emotionally reactive children?

Find it harder to inhibit feelings and shift attention away from disturbing events

They are more likely to be anxious and fearful, respond with irritation to others to stress, react angrily or aggressively when frustrated, and get along poorly with teachers and peers

20

How can parents foster preschoolers emotional self-regulation?

Warm, sensitive parents who use verbal guidance including suggesting and explaining emotion-regulation strategies, strengthen children's capacity to handle stress

Adult conversations with children also foster emotional self-regulation. Parents who prepare children for difficult experiences by describing what to expect and ways to handle anxiety offer coping strategies that children can apply

21

List two fears common in early childhood

Monsters, ghosts, and darkness

Preschool or childcare

Animals

22

Preschoolers experience self-conscious emotions more/less often then toddlers

More

23

Beginning in early childhood, guilt/shame is associated with feelings of personal inadequacy and is linked with maladjustment. In contrast, guilt/shame, as long as it occurs in appropriate circumstances, is related to positive adjustment, perhaps because it helps children resist harmful impulses

Shame; guilt

24

Empathy serves as an important motivator of this, actions that benefit another person without any expected reward for the self

Prosocial, or altruistic behavior

25

Distinguish between empathy and sympathy

Sympathy is feelings of concern or sorrow for another's plight. Empathy, or feeling with another person and responding emotionally in a similar way, does not always yield acts of kindness and helpfulness. Sometimes, empathy does not lead to sympathy

26

True or false: in some children, empathizing with an upset peer or adult escalates into personal distress

True, in trying to reduce these feelings, the child focuses on his own anxiety rather than on the person in need

27

Provide an example of how parenting contributes to the development of empathy and sympathy

When parents are warm, encourage emotional expressiveness, and show sensitive, empathic concern for their preschoolers feelings, their children are likely to react in a concerned way to the distress of others. Besides modeling sympathy, parents can teach children the importance of kindness and can intervene when they display inappropriate emotion

In contrast, angry, punitive parenting disrupts the development of empathy at an early age, particularly among children who are poor emotion regulators and who therefore respond to parental hostility with especially high personal distress

28

Unoccupied, onlooker behavior and solitary play

Non-social activity

29

A limited form of social participation in which a child plays near other children with similar materials but does not try to influence their behavior

Parallel play

30

Children engage in separate activities but exchange toys and comment on one another's behavior

Associative play

31

A more advanced type of interaction in which children orient toward a common goal, such as acting out a make-believe theme

Cooperative play

32

True or false: longitudinal research shows that play types emerge in the order Parten suggested, with later appearing ones replacing earlier ones in a developmental sequence

False, the evidence indicates that these play forms emerge in the order Parton suggested but that later-appearing ones do not replace earlier ones in a developmental sequence. Rather, all types coexist during early childhood

33

True or false: it is the type, rather than the amount, of solitary and parallel play that changes during early childhood

True. In studies of preschoolers play in Taiwan and the United States, researchers rated the cognitive maturity of nonsocial, parallel, and cooperative play. Within each play type, older children displayed more cognitively mature behavior then younger children

34

What types of non-social activity in the preschool years are cause for concern?

Aimless wandering, hovering near peers, and functional play involving immature, repetitive motor action

35

Most preschoolers with low rates of peer interaction are not socially anxious. Provide research that supports this statement

Some preschooler simply prefer to play alone, and their solitary activities are positive and constructive. Children who spend much time at these activities are usually well-adjusted youngsters who, when they do play with peers, show socially skilled behavior

36

How does socio-dramatic play support emotional and social development during early childhood?

In joint make believe, preschoolers act out and respond to one another's pretend feelings. They also explore and gain control of fear-arousing experiences when they play doctor or pretend to search for monsters in a magical forest.

As a result, they can better understand others' feelings and regulate their own. Preschooler spend much time negotiating the roles and rules in play and they must resolve their disputes through negotiation and compromise

37

True or false: peer sociability takes essentially the same form in collectivist and individualistic cultures. Provide an example to support your answer

False, peer sociability in collectivist societies, which stress group harmony, takes different forms than in individualistic cultures

For example, children in India generally play in large groups. Much of their behavior is imitative, occurs in unison, and involves close physical contact-a place style requiring high levels of cooperation

Chinese preschoolers, unlike North American preschoolers, who tend to reject reticent classmates, are typically willing to include a quiet, reserved child in play

38

Summarize children's understanding of friendship in early childhood

Preschoolers understand something about the uniqueness of friendship, they say that a friend is someone "who likes you" and with whom you spend a lot of time playing but their ideas about friendships are far from mature. 4 to 7-year-olds regard friendship as pleasurable play and sharing of toys, but friendship does not yet have a long term, and during quality based on mutual trust

39

Provide an example illustrating the unique quality of preschoolers interactions with friends

Preschoolers give twice as much reinforcement-greetings, praise, and compliance-two children they identify his friends, and they also receive more from them. Friends played together in more complex ways and are more cooperative and emotionally expressive-talking, laughing, and looking at each other more often than non-friends do

40

Kindergartners with friendly, ________ behavioral styles make new friends easily, whereas those with weak emotional self-regulation skills and argumentative, aggressive, or ____-_______ styles establish poor quality relationships and make a few friends

Prosocial; peer-avoidant

41

Experts propose that readiness for kindergarten be assessed in terms of social skills as well as academic skills. What types of social skills are important to social maturity in early childhood?

The capacity to form supportive bonds with teachers and peers, to participate actively and positively in interactions with classmates, and to behave prosocially

42

Explain how the resolution of peer conflicts promotes development during early childhood

These events provide in valuable learning experience is in resolving disputes constructively.

Social conflicts provide repeated occasions for social problem-solving: generating and applying strategies that prevent or resolve disagreements, resulting in outcomes that are both acceptable to others and beneficial to the self

43

List the six steps in the social problem-solving model proposed by Crick and Dodge

1. Notice social cues

2. Interpret social cues

3. Formulate social goals

4. Generate possible problem solving strategies

5. Evaluate probable effectiveness of strategies

6. Enact response

44

Compare the behavior of children who are skilled at social problem-solving with those who lack the skills

Skilled: interpret social cues accurately, formulate goals such as being helpful to peers that enhance relationships, and have a repertory of effective problem-solving strategies, for example, politely asking to play, requesting an explanation when they do not understand a peers behavior, and working out a compromise when faced with peer disagreement

Unskilled: often hold biased social expectations. Consequently, the attend selectively to social cues such as hostile acts and miss interpret others' behaviors by viewing and unintentional jostle as hostile. Their social goals, satisfying an impulse or getting even with or avoiding a peer, often lead to strategies that damage relationships.
They might barge into a playgroup without asking, use threats and physical force, or fearfully hover around peers activities

45

Provide an example of how social problem-solving improves during the preschool and early school years

Instead of grabbing, hitting, or insisting that another child obey, 5 to 7-year-olds tend to rely on friendly persuasion and compromise, to think of alternative strategies when an initial one does not work, and to resolve disagreements without adult intervention

46

What are several ways that intervening with children who have weak social problem-solving skills can enhance development?

Besides improving peer relations, effective social problem solving offers children a sense of mastery in the face of stressful life events. It reduces the risk of adjustment difficulties in children from low-SES and troubled families

47

List two ways that parents directly influence their children's social relationships

Through attempts to influence children's peer relations

Indirectly through their child rearing practices and play behaviors

48

Explain how a parent-child attachment and parent-child play can promote children's peer interaction skills

Attachment: Secure attachments to parents are linked to more responsive, harmonious peer interaction; larger peer network; and warmer, more supportive friendship throughout childhood and adolescence. May be due to the sensitive, emotionally expressive communication that contributes to attachment security

Play: particularly effective for promoting peer interaction skills. During play, parents interact with their child on a level playing field, much as peers do and perhaps because parents play more with the children of their own sex, mother's play is more strongly linked to daughters competence, and fathers play to sons competence

49

List two points on which most theories of moral development are in agreement

Recognize that conscience begins to take shape in early childhood

At first, the child's morality is externally controlled by adults and gradually, it becomes regulated by inner standards

50

This theory emphasizes the emotional side of conscience

Psychoanalytic theory, in particular, identification and guilt as motivators of good conduct

51

Which theory emphasizes the following aspect of moral functioning? The ability to reason about justice and fairness

Cognitive-developmental theory

Emphasizes thinking

52

Which theory emphasizes the following aspects of moral functioning? How moral behavior is learned through reinforcement and modeling

Social learning theory

53

True or false: most researchers agree with Freud's assertion that fear of punishment and loss of parental love motivate children to behave morally

False. Children whose parents frequently used threats, commands, or physical force tend to violate standards often and feel little guilt, whereas parental warmth and responsiveness predict greater guilt following transgressions

54

A type of discipline in which an adult helps make the child aware of feelings by pointing out the effects of the child's misbehavior on others

Induction

55

What are four ways in which induction supports conscious development by pointing out the effects of the child's misbehavior on others?

Induction gives children information about how to behave that they can use in future situations

By emphasizing the impact of the child's actions on others, induction encourages empathy and sympathetic concern, which motivates prosocial behavior

Giving children reasons for changing their behavior encourages them to adopt moral standards because those standards make sense

Children who consistently experience in duction me for a script for the negative emotional consequences of harming others: child causes harm, inductive message points out harm, child feels empathy for victim, child makes amends. The script deters future transgressions

56

What type of parenting interferes with the development of empathy and prosocial responding?

Discipline that relies too heavily on threats of punishment or withdrawal of love. Makes children so anxious and frightened that they cannot think clearly enough to figure out what they should do, and as a result, these practices do not get children to internalize moral rules

57

True or false: twin studies suggest a modest genetic contribution to empathy and prosocial behavior

True

58

True or false: mild, patient tactics work equally well with anxious, fearful preschoolers and fearless, and impulsive children. Explain your answer

False, mild, patient tactics are sufficient to promote guilt reactions and conscience development in anxious, fearful preschoolers, but with fearless, impulsive children, gentle discipline has little impact and Power assertion also works poorly

These things undermine the child's capacity for effortful control, which strongly predicts good conduct, empathy, sympathy, and prosocial behavior. Parents of impulse of children can foster conscious development by ensuring a secure attachment relationship and combining firm correction of miss behavior with induction

59

Explain why operant conditioning is insufficient for children to acquire moral responses

For a behavior to be reinforced, it must first occur spontaneously. Yet many prosocial acts, such as sharing, helping, comforting and unhappy playmate, occur so rarely at first that reinforcement cannot explain the rapid development in early childhood

60

Social learning theorists believe that children learn to behave morally largely through _________, by observing and imitating people who demonstrate appropriate behavior

Modelling

61

List three characteristics of the models that affect children's willingness to imitate them

Warmth and responsiveness: more likely to copy the pro social actions of an adult who is warm and responsive than those of a cold, distant adult. Warmth seems to make children more attentive and receptive to the model and is itself an example of a prosocial response

Competence and power: children admire and therefore tend to imitate competent, powerful models, especially older peers and adults

Consistency between assertions and behavior: when model say one thing and do another, children generally choose the most lenient standard of behavior that adults demonstrate

62

True or false: punishment promotes immediate compliance but does not produce long lasting changes in children's behavior

True

63

List five undesirable side effects of harsh punishment

Punishment, such as spanking, models aggression

Harshly treated children react with anger, resentment, and a chronic sense of being personally threatened, which prompts a focus on the self's distress rather than a sympathetic orientation to others needs

Develop a more conflict-ridden and less supportive parent-child relationship and also learn to avoid the punitive parent. Consequently, the parents effectiveness at teaching desirable behaviors is substantially reduced

By stopping children's misbehavior temporarily, harsh punishment gives adults immediate relief, reinforcing them for using coercive discipline. For this reason, a punitive adult is likely to punish with greater frequency over time, a course of action that can spiral into serious abuse

Children, adolescents, and adults whose parents used corporal punishment-the use of physical force to inflict pain but not injury-are more accepting of such discipline. In this way, use of physical punishment may transfer to the next generation

64

True or false: studies have failed to find a link between corporal punishment and aggressive behavior. Explain your answer

Falls. Early corporal punishment has been shown to predict externalizing behavior problems. Longitudinal findings revealed a similar link between physical punishment and later child and adolescent aggression, even after child, parenting, and family characteristics that might otherwise account for the relationship were controlled

65

List two alternatives to harsh punishment

A technique called timeout which involves removing children from the immediate setting, for example, by sending them to their rooms, until they are ready to act appropriately.
A few minutes in timeout can be enough to change behavior while also giving angry parents a cooling off period

withdrawal of privileges: with drawl privileges such as playing outside or watching a favorite TV program. Like timeout, removing privileges allows parents to avoid using harsh techniques that can easily intensify into violence

66

What are three ways that parents can increase the effectiveness of punishment when they do decide to use it?

Consistency, a warm parent-child relationship, explanations

67

Explain how rffective discipline encourages good behavior

By building a mutually respectful bond with the child, letting the child know ahead of time how to act, and praising mature behavior. When sensitivity, cooperation, and shared positive emotion are evident in joint activities between parents and preschoolers, children show firmer conscience development, expressing empathy after transgressions, behaving responsibly, playing fairly and games, and considering others welfare. Parent-child closeness leads children to heed parental demands because children feel a sense of commitment to the relationship

68

Provide three examples of positive discipline

Use transgressions as opportunities to teach: when a child engages in harmful or unsafe behavior, intervene firmly, and then use induction, which motivates children to make amends and behave pro socially

Reduce opportunities for miss behavior: on long car trips, bring back seat activities that relieve children's restlessness. As a result, children learn to occupy themselves constructively when options are limited

Provide reasons for rules: when children appreciate that rules are fair to all concerned, not arbitrary, they strive to follow the rules because they are reasonable and rational

Arrange for children to participate in family routines and duties

Encourage mature behavior

Be sensitive to children's physical and emotional resources: when children are tired, I'll, or bored, they are likely to engage in attention-getting, disorganized, or otherwise improper behavior as a reaction to discomfort

69

Use of physical punishment is highest among low-SES minority parents/middle-SES white parents

Low-SES ethnic minority parents who are more likely than middle-SES white parents to advocates slaps and spankings

70

Although corporal punishment is linked with a wide variety of negative child outcomes, exceptions do exist. Describe these exceptions

In Caucasian-American families, physical punishment was positively associated with adolescent aggression and antisocial behavior. In African-American families by contrast, the more mothers had disciplined physically in childhood, the less their teenagers displayed angry, acting out behavior and got into trouble at school and with the police

71

Discuss differences in the ways that African-American and Caucasian American families view physical punishment

African-American: such discipline is culturally approved, generally mild, delivered in a context of parental warmth, and aimed at helping children become responsible adults

Caucasian-American: typically consider physical punishment to be wrong, so when they resort to it, they are often highly agitated and rejecting of the child

As a result, most black children Mayview spanking as a practice carried out with their best interests in mind, whereas white children may regard it as an act of personal aggression

72

Define initiative versus guilt, and describe how it is exhibited in preschoolers

Young children have a new sense of purposefulness. They are eager to tackle new tasks, join in activities with peers, and discover what they can do with the help of adults and they also make strides in conscious development

73

In what major way does the cognitive-developmental perspective of morality differ from the psychoanalytic and social learning approaches?

The psychoanalytic and behaviorist approach is to morality focus on how children acquire ready-made standards of good conduct from adults

In contrast, the cognitive-developmental perspective regards children as active thinkers about social rules. As early as the preschool years, children make moral judgments, deciding what is right or wrong on the basis of concepts they construct about justice and fairness

74

Preschoolers are able to distinguish _________ imperatives, which protect peoples rights and welfare, from two other forms of action: _______ conventions, or customs determined solely by consensus, such as table manners and and dress style, and matters of _______ _______ , which do not violate rights or harm others, are not socially regulated, and therefore are up to the individual

Moral imperative's; social conventions; matters of personal choice

75

Provide an example of how young children learn to make distinctions between moral imperative's and social conventions

According to cognitive-developmental serious, they actively make sense of their experiences. They observe that after a moral offense, peers respond with strong negative emotion, describe their own injury or loss, tell another child to stop, or retaliate. And an adult who intervenes is likely to call attention to the rights and feelings of the victim. In contrast, violations of social convention elicit less intense peer reactions, and in these situations, adults usually demand obedience without explanation or point to the importance of keeping order

76

List three features of parent communication that help children reason about morality

Parents adapt their communications about fighting, honesty, and ownership to what their children can understand, tell stories with moral implications, encourage prosocial behavior, and gently stimulate the child to think further, without being hostile or critical

77

By the end of the preschool years, two general types of aggression emerge. The most common is ________ aggression, aimed at obtaining an object, privilege, or space with no deliberate intent to harm. The other type is __________ aggression, which is intended to hurt another person

Proactive or instrumental aggression; reactive or hostile aggression

78

This type of aggression harms others through physical injury-pushing, hitting, kicking, or punching others, or destroying another's property

Physical aggression

79

This type of aggression harms others through threats of physical aggression, name-calling, or hostile teasing

Verbal aggression

80

This type of aggression damages another's peer relationships through social exclusion, malicious gossip, or friendship manipulation

Relational aggression

81

In early childhood, physical/verbal aggression gradually replaces physical/verbal aggression. What accounts for this change?

Verbal aggression gradually replaces physical aggression as language develops and adults and peers react negatively and strongly to physical attacks. Proactive aggression declines as preschoolers improve capacity to delay gratification enables them to resist grabbing others possessions. But reactive aggression in the verbal and relational forms tends to rise over early and middle childhood

82

Boys/girls display overall rates of aggression that are much higher than boys/girls

Boys; girls

83

What are three negative outcomes for highly aggressive children?

These children are addressed for later internalizing and externalizing difficulties and social skills deficits, including loneliness, anxiety, depression, poor quality friendships, and anti-social activity in middle childhood and adolescence

84

Provide an example of how a hostile family atmosphere creates a cycle of aggression

The pattern begins with forceful discipline, which occurs more often with stressed life experiences, a parent with an unstable personality, or a temperamentally difficult child. Typically, the parents threatens, criticizes, and punishes, and the child wines, yells, and refuses until the parent gives in. At the end of each exchange, both parent and child get relief from stopping the unpleasant behavior of the other, so the behavior repeats and escalates.

85

True or false: girls are more likely than boys to be targets of harsh physical discipline and parental inconsistency

False, boys are more likely than girls to be targets because they are more active and impulsive and therefore harder to control

86

Compare deficits in social information-processing for children high in reactive aggression and those high in proactive aggression

Reactive aggression: often see hostile intent where it does not exist- in situations where peers intentions are unclear, where harm is accidental, and even where peers are trying to be helpful. When such children feel threatened, they are especially likely to interpret accidental mishaps as hostile and as a result, they make many unprovoked attacks, which trigger aggressive retaliation

Proactive aggression: they believe there are more benefits and fewer costs for engaging in destructive ask and they are more likely to think that aggression works, producing material rewards and reducing others unpleasant behaviors. Thus, they callously use aggression to advance their own goals and are relatively unconcerned about causing suffering in others, an aggressive style associated with later, more severe conduct problems, violent behavior, and delinquency

87

True or false: violent content in children's programming occurs at above-average rates, and cartoons are the most violent

True

88

Explain why young children are especially likely to be influenced by television

Because they believe that much TV fiction is real and accept what they see uncritically

89

True or false: media violence hardens children to aggression, making them more willing to tolerate it in others. Briefly explain your response

True. Viewers quickly habituate, responding with reduced arousal to real world instances and tolerating more aggression in others. Heavy viewers believe that there is much more violence in society then there actually is-and effect that is especially strong for children who perceive media violence to be relevant to their own lives.

90

List three strategies parents can use to regulate children's TV viewing and computer use

Limit TV viewing and computer use: vied clear rules limiting my children can view on TV and do you want to computer and stick to them. Avoid using the TV or the computer as a babysitter and do not put it in a child's bedroom

Avoid using TV or computer time as a reward: when TV or computer access is used as a reward or withheld as punishment, children become increasingly attracted to it

When possible, watch TV with children, helping them understand what they see

Link TV content to every day learning experiences: such as going to the zoo or library

Model good TV and computer practices

91

List several ways to help parents and children break the cycle of hostility between family members

Parents: see a therapist who can coach them in alternatives to their inept practices. Learn to pair commands with reasons, and to replace verbal insults and spankings with more effective punishment. Encourage parents to be warmer and to give more attention and approval for prosocial acts. May also help with marital problems

Children: parents can teach children more successful ways of relating to peers and have them practice the skills and praise them when they use them. Parents can also encourage children to talk about a playmates feelings and to express their own. As they do this, take the perspective of others, empathize, and feel sympathetic concern, lashing out at peers can decline

92

Refers to any association of objects, activities, roles, or traits with one sex or the other in ways that conform to cultural stereotypes

Gender typing

93

Preschoolers gender stereotypes are flexible/rigid. Explain your answer

Rigid. When children were asked whether gender stereotypes could be violated, Half or more of three and five-year-olds answered no to clothing, hairstyle, certain place styles, and play with certain boys. Most 3 to 6-year-olds are firm about not wanting to be friends with a child who violates a gender stereotype or to attend a school where such violations are allowed

94

True or false: most preschoolers believe that characteristics associated with each sex, for example activities, clothes, hairstyles, and occupation, determine whether a person is male or female

True. They have trouble understanding that males and females can be different in terms of their bodies but similar in many other ways

95

List four sex differences in play and personality traits that are widespread among mammalian species

Male activity level and physical aggression, female emotional sensitivity, and a preference for same-sex playmates

96

Eleanor Maccoby argues that ____ _______ affect human play styles, leading to rough, noisy movements among boys and calm, gentle actions among girls

Sex hormones

97

Girls exposed to high levels of androgens prenatally display more/less masculine behavior

True

98

True or false: after sex reassignment surgery, Bruce-renamed Brenda-readily adopted feminine social and personality characteristics

False

99

Explain how David Reimers development confirms the impact of genetic sex and prenatal hormones on a person's sense of self as a male or female

His gender reassignment failed because his male biology overwhelmingly demanded a consistent sexual identity.

100

What does David Reimers childhood reveal about the importance of environmental influences on gender typing?

David expressed outrage at adult encouragement of dependency in girls because he had experienced it firsthand

101

Provide an example of how parents encourage gender-stereotyped beliefs and behavior in their children

Many parents prefer that their children play with gender-appropriate toys and they tend to describe achievement, competition, and control of emotion as important for sons and warmth, lady like behavior, and closely supervised activities as important for daughters

Parenting practices reflect these beliefs. Parents give their sons toys that stress action and competition such as guns, cars, tools, and footballs and their daughters toys that emphasize nurturance, cooperation, and physical attractiveness such as dolls, tea sets, and jewelry.

102

Of the two sexes, girls/boys are more clearly gender stereotyped. Why might this be the case?

Boys are more gender tight. Fathers, especially, are more insistent that boys conform to gender roles. They place more pressure to achieve on sons than on daughters and are less tolerant of cross-gender behavior in their sons.

103

Provide an example of how preschool teachers contribute to children's gender-role learning

Teachers give girls more encouragement to participate in adult structured activities and girls frequently cluster around the teacher, following directions, while boys are attracted to play areas where adults are minimally involved. Teachers also use more disapproval and control and discipline with boys. When girls miss behave, teachers tend to negotiate, coming up with a joint plan to improve behavior

104

Peer rejection is greater for girls/boys who frequently engage in cross-gender behavior

Boys

105

Discuss the different styles of social influence promoted within gender-segregated peer groups

Boys: to get their way in large group play, boys often rely on commands, threats, and physical force.

Girls: girls preference for playing in pairs leads to greater concern with the partners needs, evident in girls use of polite requests, persuasion, and acceptance

106

What are three factors that work together to sustain gender segregation and the gender typing that occurs within it

Over time, children come to believe in the correctness of gender segregated play, which further strengthens gender segregation and gender stereotype activities. As boys and girls separate, in group favoritism-more positive evaluations of members of one's own gender-becomes another factor that sustains the separate social worlds of boys and girls, resulting in two distinct subcultures of shared knowledge, beliefs, interests, and behaviors

107

How do TV and media influence children's endorsement of gender stereotypes?

Although today's TV programs include more career-oriented women than in the past, female characters continue to be young, attractive, caring, emotional, and victimized and to be seen in romantic and family contexts. In contrast, male characters are usually dominant and powerful

108

An image of oneself as relatively masculine or feminine in characteristics

Gender identity

109

How is gender identity measured?

By asking children to raise themselves on personality traits. A child or adult with the masculine identity score is high on traditionally masculine items such as ambitious, competitive, and self-sufficient and low on traditionally feminine items such as affectionate, cheerful, and soft-spoken. Someone with a feminine identity does the reverse

110

Refers to a type of gender identity in which the person scores highly on both masculine and feminine personality characteristics

Androgyny

111

True or false: children and adults with a feminine gender identity generally have higher self-esteem than individuals who identify as masculine or androgynous. Explain why or why not.

False, masculine and androgynous children and adults have higher self-esteem then feminine individual, perhaps because many typically feminine traits are not highly valued by society.
Also, androgynous individuals are more adaptable-able to show masculine independence or feminine sensitivity, depending on the situation

112

Contrast social learning and cognitive-developmental accounts of the emergence of gender identity

According to social learning theory, behavior comes before self-perceptions. Preschoolers first acquire gender type responses through modeling and reinforcement and only later organize these behaviors into gender-linked ideas about themselves

Cognitive-developmental theory maintains that self-perceptions come before behavior. Over the preschool years, children acquire a cognitive appreciation of the permanence of their sex and use this knowledge to guide their behavior

113

A full understanding of the biologically-based permanence of gender, including the realization that sex remains the same overtime, even if clothing, hairstyle, and play activities change

Gender constancy

114

Mastery of gender constancy occurs in a three step sequence:

1. Gender labeling: correct meaning of one's own and others' sex

2. Gender stability: understanding that gender remains the same over time

3. Gender consistency: realization that gender is not altered by superficial changes in clothing or activities

115

Is gender constancy responsible for children's gender-typed behavior? Why or why not?

Evidence for this assumption is weak. Gender-appropriate behavior appears so early in the preschool years that it's initial appearance must result from modeling and reinforcement, as social learning theory suggests. Some evidence suggests that gender constancy actually contributes to the emergence of more flexible gender role attitudes during the school years but overall effect is not great

116

An information-processing approach to gender typing that combines social learning and cognitive-developmental features. It explains how environmental pressures and children's cognitions work together to shape gender-role development

Gender schema theory

117

Masculine and feminine categories children use to interpret their world

Gender schemas

As soon as preschoolers can label their own gender, they select gender schemas consistent with it and apply those categories to themselves. There self-perceptions then become gender typed and serve as additional schemas the children used to process information and guide their own behavior

118

How does gender-schematic thinking affect children's behavior?

There are different cognitive pathways for children who often apply gender schemas to their experiences and those who rarely do

For a gender-schematic child who often applies gender schemas to their experiences, their gender-salient filter immediately makes gender highly relevant

For a gender-aschematic child, one who seldom views the world in gender-linked terms, they will respond based on their interests

119

What are three ways that parents and teachers can reduce gender stereotyping in young children?

Delay preschoolers exposure to gender-stereotype messages. Adults can begin by limiting traditional gender roles in their own behavior and by providing children with nontraditional alternatives, for example, parents can take turns making dinner, bathing children, and driving the family car, and they can give their sons and daughters both trucks and dolls and both pink and blue clothing

Teachers can make sure that all children spend time in mixed-gender play activities and in both adult-structured and unstructured pursuits

Adults can avoid language that conveys gender stereotypes and can shield children from media presentations that do the same

120

Based on the research findings of Baumrind and others, what are three features that consistently differentiate between more and less effective child-rearing styles?

Acceptance and involvement, control, and autonomy granting

121

The most successful approach to child rearing, involves high acceptance and involvement, adaptive control techniques, and appropriate autonomy granting

Authoritative

Associated child outcomes: upbeat mood, self-control, persistence, cooperativeness, high self-esteem, academic success

122

A child-rearing style low in acceptance and involvement, high in coercive control, and low in autonomy granting

Authoritarian

Associated child outcomes: anxiety, low self-esteem and self reliance, hostile reactions to frustration, high anger, dependence in girls, poor school performance

123

A child-rearing style that is warm and accepting but uninvolved. Parents are either overindulgent or inattentive and engage in little control

Permissive

Associated child outcomes: impulsivity, disobedience, rebellion, dependent and nonachieving, antisocial behavior

124

A child rearing style that combines low acceptance and involvement with little control and general indifference to autonomy

Uninvolved

Associated child outcomes: four emotional self-regulation, poor school achievement, antisocial behavior

125

Authoritarian/authoritative parents engage in a subtle type of control called _______ control, in which they intrude on and manipulate children's verbal expression, individuality, and attachments to parents

Authoritarian; Psychological

126

Which child-rearing approach is the most successful, and why?

The authoritative child rearing approach. Promotes maturity and children of diverse temperaments and seems to create a positive emotional context for parental influence

127

At its extreme, uninvolved parenting is a form of child maltreatment called

Neglect. Disrupts virtually all aspects of development

128

What are for reasons that authoritative parenting is especially effective?

Warm, involved parents who are secure in the standards they hold for their children provide models of caring concern as well as confident, self control behavior

Children are far more likely to comply with and internalize control that appears fair and reasonable, not arbitrary

By making demands and engaging in autonomy granting that matches children's ability to take responsibility for their own behavior, I thought he'd of parents let children know that they are competent individuals who can do things successfully for themselves. In this way, parents foster favorable self-esteem and cognitive and social maturity

Supportive aspects of the authoritative style, including parental except dents, involvement, and rational control, are a powerful source of resilience, protecting children from the negative effects of family stress and poverty

129

Describe how the parenting practices of the following cultural groups often differ from those of Caucasian Americans:

Hispanic, Asian Pacific island, and Caribbean

African-American

Hispanic, Asian Pacific island, Caribbean: firm insistence on respect for parental authority is paired with high parental warm-a combination suited to promoting competence and strong feelings of family loyalty. Hispanic fathers typically spend much time with their children and are warm and sensitive. In Caribbean families that have immigrated to the US, fathers authoritativeness but not mothers, predicted preschoolers literacy and math skills, probably because Caribbean Father's take a larger role in guiding their children's academic progress

African-American: low SES parents tend to expect immediate obedience, regarding strictness as fostering self-control and a watchful attitude in risky surroundings. African-American parents who use more controlling strategies tend to have more cognitively and socially competent children. Most African-American parents who you strict discipline use physical punishment sparingly and combine it with warmth and reasoning

130

What are several contextual factors that contribute to successful parenting?

Personal characteristics of the child and parent, SES, access to extended family and community supports, cultural values and practices, and public policies

131

List and describe for forms of child maltreatment

Physical abuse: assaults such as shaking, kicking, biting, punching, or stabbing that inflict physical injury

Sexual abuse: fondling, intercourse, exhibitionism, commercial exploitation through prostitution or production of pornography, and other forms of sexual exploitation

Neglect: failure to meet a child's basic needs for food, clothing, medical attention, education, or supervision

Emotional abuse: acts that could cause serious mental or behavioral disorders, including social isolation, repeated unreasonable demands, ridicule, humiliation, intimidation, or terrorizing

132

Parents/strangers commit more than 80% of abuse of incidents

Parents

133

True or false: researchers have identified an abusive personality type

False, a single abusive personality type does not exist. Parents who were abused as children do not necessarily become abusers and sometimes even normal parents harm their children

134

List several parent, child, and family environment characteristics associated with an increased likelihood of abuse

Parent: psychological disturbance, alcohol and drug abuse, history of abuse as a child, belief in harsh, physical discipline, desire to satisfy unmet emotional needs through the child, unreasonable expectations for the child's behavior, low educational level

Child: premature or very sick baby, difficult temperament, inattentiveness and overactivity, other developmental problems

Family: low income or poverty, homelessness, marital instability, social isolation, partner abuse, frequent moves, large families with closely spaced children, overcrowded living conditions, disorganized household, lack of study employment, other signs of high life stress

135

What are two reasons that most abusive parents are isolated from supportive ties to their communities?

Because of their life histories, many have learned to miss trust and avoid others and are poorly skilled at establishing and maintaining positive relationships. Also, maltreating parents are more likely to live in unstable, rundown neighborhoods that provide few links between family and community, such as parks, childcare centers, preschool programs, recreation centers, and religious institutions

136

Societies that view violence as an appropriate way to solve problems set the stage for child abuse. These conditions do/do not exist in the United States and Canada. Explain your answer

False

Widespread support exists for use of physical force with children and where as many countries have outlawed physical punishment, a measure that dampens both physical discipline and abuse, every industrialized nation except the United States and Canada now prohibits corporal punishment in schools

137

Summarize the consequences of child maltreatment for abused children

Impair the development of emotional self-regulation, empathy and sympathy, self-concept, social skills, and academic motivation. Over time these youngsters show serious adjustment problems, including severe depression, aggressive behavior, pier difficulties, substance abuse, and delinquency, including violent crime

Profound distress including emotional insecurity leading to aggression as a way of solving problems

May attempt suicide and at school they present serious discipline problems which also interfere with academic achievement and further undermine their chances for life success

Repeated abuse is associated with central nervous system damage, including abnormal EEG brainwave activity, reduce size and impaired functioning of the cerebral cortex and corpus Colosso him, and atypical production of the stress hormone cortisol

138

Discuss strategies for preventing child maltreatment in the family

Teaching high-risk parents effect of child rearing strategies, providing direct experience with children in high school child development courses, and developing broad social programs aimed at improving economic and neighborhood conditions and community services for at risk families

Providing social supports to families to help ease parental stress

139

Explain how the healthy families America program works to reduce abuse and neglect

Identifies families at risk for maltreatment during pregnancy or at birth and each receive three years of home visitation in which a trained worker helps parents manage crises, encourages effective child-rearing, and puts parents in touch with community services to meet their own children's needs

140

In child maltreatment cases, judges are often hesitant to remove the child from the family. List three reasons for their reluctance

In United States, government intervention into family life is viewed as a last resort

Despite distractive family relationships, maltreated children and their parents usually are attached to one another and usually neither desires separation

The US legal system tends to regard children as parental property rather than as human beings in their own right, and this has also stood in the way of court order protection