Flashcards in Chapter 10- Emotional And Social Development In Early Childhood Deck (140):
Describe two benefits of play for preschoolers
Play is a means through which young children learn about themselves and their social world. It permits preschoolers to try new skills with little risk of criticism and failure and also creates a small social organization of children who must cooperate to achieve common goals
According to Ericsson, what leads to a negative outcome of the initiative-versus-guilt stage?
An overly strict superego that causes children to feel too much guilt because they have been threatened, criticized, and punished excessively by adults. When this happens, preschoolers' exuberant play and bold efforts to master new tasks break down
Refers to the set of attributes, abilities, attitudes, and values that an individual believes defines who he or she is. How does this mental representation of the self affect children's development?
Has profound implications for children's emotional and social lives, influencing their preferences for activities and social partners and their vulnerability to stress
Preschoolers self-concepts largely consist of:
Observable characteristics, such as their name, physical appearance, possessions, and every day behaviors. Children also describe themselves in terms of typical emotions and attitudes.
For example, they may say "I'm happy when I play with my friends", "I don't like scary TV programs", "I usually do what mommy says "
They do not yet see "I'm helpful "or "I'm shy". Direct references to personality traits must wait for greater cognitive maturity
Preschoolers with a secure attachment to their mothers are more/less likely to have a favorable self-concept. Briefly explain why
More likely to describe themselves in favorable terms. Securely attached preschoolers participate in more elaborative parent-child conversations about personally experienced events, which help them understand themselves
True or false: preschoolers are unable to view themselves as persisting over time and cannot imagine or plan future events
Discuss differences in storytelling practices between Chinese and Irish-American parents, and explain the influence on children's self image
Parents in both cultures discussed pleasurable holidays and family excursions in similar ways and with similar frequency. But Chinese parents more often told long stories about the child's misdeeds. These narratives were conveyed with warmth and caring, stressed the impact of misbehavior on others, and often ended with direct teaching of proper behavior. By contrast, in the few instances in which Irish-American stories referred to transgressions, parents downplayed their seriousness, attributing them to the child's spunk and assertiveness
Chinese parents integrated the values of strict discipline and social obligations into their stories, affirming the importance of not disgracing the family and explicitly conveying expectations in the stories conclusion. Chinese adults generally see favorable self-esteem as unimportant or even negative, as impeding the child's willingness to listen and to be corrected. Consistent with this view, the Chinese parents did little to cultivate their child's individuality and used storytelling to guide the child to more socially responsible behavior. By the end of the preschool years, the Chinese child's self image emphasizes membership in the collective and obligations to others
The Irish-American parents rarely do out on Mistines and they cash the child shortcomings in a positive light, perhaps to promote self esteem. Most Americans believe that favorable self-esteem is crucial for healthy development. By the end of the preschool years, the American child's self-image is more autonomous, consisting largely of personal descriptions
The judgments we make about our own worth and the feelings associated with those judgments
Preschoolers generally rate their own ability as higher/lower than their actual competence and overestimate/underestimate the difficulty of tasks. Explain why
Because they have difficulty distinguishing between their desired and their actual competence. High self-esteem contributes greatly to preschoolers initiative during a period in which they must master many skills
How does high self-esteem help preschoolers master new skills?
It helps them to be enthusiastic and highly motivated. Children with a history of parental criticism of their worth and performance give up easily when faced with the challenge and express shame and despondency after failing
Between the ages of two and six, children make strides in the emotional abilities known collectively as _________ ________. List the three ways in which this growth takes place
First, preschoolers gain in emotional understanding, becoming better able to talk about feelings and to respond appropriately to others emotional signals
Second, they become better at emotional self-regulation, in particular, at coping with intense negative emotion
Thirdly, preschoolers more often experience self-conscious emotions and empathy, which contribute to their developing sense of morality
True or false: by age 4 to 5, children can correctly judge the causes of many basic emotions
Do preschoolers recognize that thoughts and feelings are interconnected? explain
Yes, for instance, that a person reminded of a previous sad experience is likely to feel sad. They come up with effective ways to relieve others negative feelings, such as hugging to reduce sadness and they have an impressive ability to interpret, predict, and change others feelings
True or false: in situations with conflicting cues about how a person is feeling, preschoolers can easily reconcile this differing information
False, they have difficulty interpreting situations that offer conflicting cues about how a person is feeling. When shown a picture of a happy-faced child with a broken bicycle, four and five-year-olds tended to rely on the emotional expression, "He's happy because he likes to ride his bike "
Provide an example of how parents can facilitate children's understanding of emotion
The more mothers label emotions, explain them, and express warmth and enthusiasm when conversing with preschoolers, the more emotion words children use and the better developed their emotional understanding. Maternal prompting of emotional thoughts quote what makes him afraid? Quote is a good predictor of two-year-olds emotion language. For older preschoolers, explanations are more important
Preschoolers whose parents frequently acknowledge their children's emotional reactions and talk about diverse emotions are better able to judge others emotions when tested at later ages
List for ways in which emotional knowledge helps children get along with their peers
Knowledge about emotions is related to friendly, considerate behavior, willingness to make amends after harming another, and constructive responses to disputes with age mates. The more preschoolers referred to feelings when interacting with playmates, the better like they are by their peers
Provide an example of how language contributes to preschoolers improved emotional self-regulation
By age 3 to 4, children verbalize a variety of strategies for adjusting their emotional arousal to a more comfortable level. For example, they know they can blunt emotions by restricting sensory input such as covering their eyes or ears to block out a scary sight or sound, talking to themselves "Mommy said she'll be back soon ", or changing their goals (deciding that they don't want to play anyway after being excluded from a game)
Explain how effortful control helps young children manage emotion
Effortful control, in particular, inhibiting impulses and shifting attention, continues to be vital in managing emotion in early childhood. Three-year-old who can distract themselves one frustrated tend to become cooperative school-age children with a few problem behaviors. By age 3, effortful control predicts children skill at portraying and emotion they do not feel, for example, reacting cheerfully after receiving an undesirable gift
What are two characteristics of emotionally reactive children?
Find it harder to inhibit feelings and shift attention away from disturbing events
They are more likely to be anxious and fearful, respond with irritation to others to stress, react angrily or aggressively when frustrated, and get along poorly with teachers and peers
How can parents foster preschoolers emotional self-regulation?
Warm, sensitive parents who use verbal guidance including suggesting and explaining emotion-regulation strategies, strengthen children's capacity to handle stress
Adult conversations with children also foster emotional self-regulation. Parents who prepare children for difficult experiences by describing what to expect and ways to handle anxiety offer coping strategies that children can apply
List two fears common in early childhood
Monsters, ghosts, and darkness
Preschool or childcare
Preschoolers experience self-conscious emotions more/less often then toddlers
Beginning in early childhood, guilt/shame is associated with feelings of personal inadequacy and is linked with maladjustment. In contrast, guilt/shame, as long as it occurs in appropriate circumstances, is related to positive adjustment, perhaps because it helps children resist harmful impulses
Empathy serves as an important motivator of this, actions that benefit another person without any expected reward for the self
Prosocial, or altruistic behavior
Distinguish between empathy and sympathy
Sympathy is feelings of concern or sorrow for another's plight. Empathy, or feeling with another person and responding emotionally in a similar way, does not always yield acts of kindness and helpfulness. Sometimes, empathy does not lead to sympathy
True or false: in some children, empathizing with an upset peer or adult escalates into personal distress
True, in trying to reduce these feelings, the child focuses on his own anxiety rather than on the person in need
Provide an example of how parenting contributes to the development of empathy and sympathy
When parents are warm, encourage emotional expressiveness, and show sensitive, empathic concern for their preschoolers feelings, their children are likely to react in a concerned way to the distress of others. Besides modeling sympathy, parents can teach children the importance of kindness and can intervene when they display inappropriate emotion
In contrast, angry, punitive parenting disrupts the development of empathy at an early age, particularly among children who are poor emotion regulators and who therefore respond to parental hostility with especially high personal distress
Unoccupied, onlooker behavior and solitary play
A limited form of social participation in which a child plays near other children with similar materials but does not try to influence their behavior
Children engage in separate activities but exchange toys and comment on one another's behavior
A more advanced type of interaction in which children orient toward a common goal, such as acting out a make-believe theme
True or false: longitudinal research shows that play types emerge in the order Parten suggested, with later appearing ones replacing earlier ones in a developmental sequence
False, the evidence indicates that these play forms emerge in the order Parton suggested but that later-appearing ones do not replace earlier ones in a developmental sequence. Rather, all types coexist during early childhood
True or false: it is the type, rather than the amount, of solitary and parallel play that changes during early childhood
True. In studies of preschoolers play in Taiwan and the United States, researchers rated the cognitive maturity of nonsocial, parallel, and cooperative play. Within each play type, older children displayed more cognitively mature behavior then younger children
What types of non-social activity in the preschool years are cause for concern?
Aimless wandering, hovering near peers, and functional play involving immature, repetitive motor action
Most preschoolers with low rates of peer interaction are not socially anxious. Provide research that supports this statement
Some preschooler simply prefer to play alone, and their solitary activities are positive and constructive. Children who spend much time at these activities are usually well-adjusted youngsters who, when they do play with peers, show socially skilled behavior
How does socio-dramatic play support emotional and social development during early childhood?
In joint make believe, preschoolers act out and respond to one another's pretend feelings. They also explore and gain control of fear-arousing experiences when they play doctor or pretend to search for monsters in a magical forest.
As a result, they can better understand others' feelings and regulate their own. Preschooler spend much time negotiating the roles and rules in play and they must resolve their disputes through negotiation and compromise
True or false: peer sociability takes essentially the same form in collectivist and individualistic cultures. Provide an example to support your answer
False, peer sociability in collectivist societies, which stress group harmony, takes different forms than in individualistic cultures
For example, children in India generally play in large groups. Much of their behavior is imitative, occurs in unison, and involves close physical contact-a place style requiring high levels of cooperation
Chinese preschoolers, unlike North American preschoolers, who tend to reject reticent classmates, are typically willing to include a quiet, reserved child in play
Summarize children's understanding of friendship in early childhood
Preschoolers understand something about the uniqueness of friendship, they say that a friend is someone "who likes you" and with whom you spend a lot of time playing but their ideas about friendships are far from mature. 4 to 7-year-olds regard friendship as pleasurable play and sharing of toys, but friendship does not yet have a long term, and during quality based on mutual trust
Provide an example illustrating the unique quality of preschoolers interactions with friends
Preschoolers give twice as much reinforcement-greetings, praise, and compliance-two children they identify his friends, and they also receive more from them. Friends played together in more complex ways and are more cooperative and emotionally expressive-talking, laughing, and looking at each other more often than non-friends do
Kindergartners with friendly, ________ behavioral styles make new friends easily, whereas those with weak emotional self-regulation skills and argumentative, aggressive, or ____-_______ styles establish poor quality relationships and make a few friends
Experts propose that readiness for kindergarten be assessed in terms of social skills as well as academic skills. What types of social skills are important to social maturity in early childhood?
The capacity to form supportive bonds with teachers and peers, to participate actively and positively in interactions with classmates, and to behave prosocially
Explain how the resolution of peer conflicts promotes development during early childhood
These events provide in valuable learning experience is in resolving disputes constructively.
Social conflicts provide repeated occasions for social problem-solving: generating and applying strategies that prevent or resolve disagreements, resulting in outcomes that are both acceptable to others and beneficial to the self
List the six steps in the social problem-solving model proposed by Crick and Dodge
1. Notice social cues
2. Interpret social cues
3. Formulate social goals
4. Generate possible problem solving strategies
5. Evaluate probable effectiveness of strategies
6. Enact response
Compare the behavior of children who are skilled at social problem-solving with those who lack the skills
Skilled: interpret social cues accurately, formulate goals such as being helpful to peers that enhance relationships, and have a repertory of effective problem-solving strategies, for example, politely asking to play, requesting an explanation when they do not understand a peers behavior, and working out a compromise when faced with peer disagreement
Unskilled: often hold biased social expectations. Consequently, the attend selectively to social cues such as hostile acts and miss interpret others' behaviors by viewing and unintentional jostle as hostile. Their social goals, satisfying an impulse or getting even with or avoiding a peer, often lead to strategies that damage relationships.
They might barge into a playgroup without asking, use threats and physical force, or fearfully hover around peers activities
Provide an example of how social problem-solving improves during the preschool and early school years
Instead of grabbing, hitting, or insisting that another child obey, 5 to 7-year-olds tend to rely on friendly persuasion and compromise, to think of alternative strategies when an initial one does not work, and to resolve disagreements without adult intervention
What are several ways that intervening with children who have weak social problem-solving skills can enhance development?
Besides improving peer relations, effective social problem solving offers children a sense of mastery in the face of stressful life events. It reduces the risk of adjustment difficulties in children from low-SES and troubled families
List two ways that parents directly influence their children's social relationships
Through attempts to influence children's peer relations
Indirectly through their child rearing practices and play behaviors
Explain how a parent-child attachment and parent-child play can promote children's peer interaction skills
Attachment: Secure attachments to parents are linked to more responsive, harmonious peer interaction; larger peer network; and warmer, more supportive friendship throughout childhood and adolescence. May be due to the sensitive, emotionally expressive communication that contributes to attachment security
Play: particularly effective for promoting peer interaction skills. During play, parents interact with their child on a level playing field, much as peers do and perhaps because parents play more with the children of their own sex, mother's play is more strongly linked to daughters competence, and fathers play to sons competence
List two points on which most theories of moral development are in agreement
Recognize that conscience begins to take shape in early childhood
At first, the child's morality is externally controlled by adults and gradually, it becomes regulated by inner standards
This theory emphasizes the emotional side of conscience
Psychoanalytic theory, in particular, identification and guilt as motivators of good conduct
Which theory emphasizes the following aspect of moral functioning? The ability to reason about justice and fairness
Which theory emphasizes the following aspects of moral functioning? How moral behavior is learned through reinforcement and modeling
Social learning theory
True or false: most researchers agree with Freud's assertion that fear of punishment and loss of parental love motivate children to behave morally
False. Children whose parents frequently used threats, commands, or physical force tend to violate standards often and feel little guilt, whereas parental warmth and responsiveness predict greater guilt following transgressions
A type of discipline in which an adult helps make the child aware of feelings by pointing out the effects of the child's misbehavior on others
What are four ways in which induction supports conscious development by pointing out the effects of the child's misbehavior on others?
Induction gives children information about how to behave that they can use in future situations
By emphasizing the impact of the child's actions on others, induction encourages empathy and sympathetic concern, which motivates prosocial behavior
Giving children reasons for changing their behavior encourages them to adopt moral standards because those standards make sense
Children who consistently experience in duction me for a script for the negative emotional consequences of harming others: child causes harm, inductive message points out harm, child feels empathy for victim, child makes amends. The script deters future transgressions
What type of parenting interferes with the development of empathy and prosocial responding?
Discipline that relies too heavily on threats of punishment or withdrawal of love. Makes children so anxious and frightened that they cannot think clearly enough to figure out what they should do, and as a result, these practices do not get children to internalize moral rules
True or false: twin studies suggest a modest genetic contribution to empathy and prosocial behavior
True or false: mild, patient tactics work equally well with anxious, fearful preschoolers and fearless, and impulsive children. Explain your answer
False, mild, patient tactics are sufficient to promote guilt reactions and conscience development in anxious, fearful preschoolers, but with fearless, impulsive children, gentle discipline has little impact and Power assertion also works poorly
These things undermine the child's capacity for effortful control, which strongly predicts good conduct, empathy, sympathy, and prosocial behavior. Parents of impulse of children can foster conscious development by ensuring a secure attachment relationship and combining firm correction of miss behavior with induction
Explain why operant conditioning is insufficient for children to acquire moral responses
For a behavior to be reinforced, it must first occur spontaneously. Yet many prosocial acts, such as sharing, helping, comforting and unhappy playmate, occur so rarely at first that reinforcement cannot explain the rapid development in early childhood
Social learning theorists believe that children learn to behave morally largely through _________, by observing and imitating people who demonstrate appropriate behavior
List three characteristics of the models that affect children's willingness to imitate them
Warmth and responsiveness: more likely to copy the pro social actions of an adult who is warm and responsive than those of a cold, distant adult. Warmth seems to make children more attentive and receptive to the model and is itself an example of a prosocial response
Competence and power: children admire and therefore tend to imitate competent, powerful models, especially older peers and adults
Consistency between assertions and behavior: when model say one thing and do another, children generally choose the most lenient standard of behavior that adults demonstrate
True or false: punishment promotes immediate compliance but does not produce long lasting changes in children's behavior
List five undesirable side effects of harsh punishment
Punishment, such as spanking, models aggression
Harshly treated children react with anger, resentment, and a chronic sense of being personally threatened, which prompts a focus on the self's distress rather than a sympathetic orientation to others needs
Develop a more conflict-ridden and less supportive parent-child relationship and also learn to avoid the punitive parent. Consequently, the parents effectiveness at teaching desirable behaviors is substantially reduced
By stopping children's misbehavior temporarily, harsh punishment gives adults immediate relief, reinforcing them for using coercive discipline. For this reason, a punitive adult is likely to punish with greater frequency over time, a course of action that can spiral into serious abuse
Children, adolescents, and adults whose parents used corporal punishment-the use of physical force to inflict pain but not injury-are more accepting of such discipline. In this way, use of physical punishment may transfer to the next generation
True or false: studies have failed to find a link between corporal punishment and aggressive behavior. Explain your answer
Falls. Early corporal punishment has been shown to predict externalizing behavior problems. Longitudinal findings revealed a similar link between physical punishment and later child and adolescent aggression, even after child, parenting, and family characteristics that might otherwise account for the relationship were controlled
List two alternatives to harsh punishment
A technique called timeout which involves removing children from the immediate setting, for example, by sending them to their rooms, until they are ready to act appropriately.
A few minutes in timeout can be enough to change behavior while also giving angry parents a cooling off period
withdrawal of privileges: with drawl privileges such as playing outside or watching a favorite TV program. Like timeout, removing privileges allows parents to avoid using harsh techniques that can easily intensify into violence
What are three ways that parents can increase the effectiveness of punishment when they do decide to use it?
Consistency, a warm parent-child relationship, explanations
Explain how rffective discipline encourages good behavior
By building a mutually respectful bond with the child, letting the child know ahead of time how to act, and praising mature behavior. When sensitivity, cooperation, and shared positive emotion are evident in joint activities between parents and preschoolers, children show firmer conscience development, expressing empathy after transgressions, behaving responsibly, playing fairly and games, and considering others welfare. Parent-child closeness leads children to heed parental demands because children feel a sense of commitment to the relationship
Provide three examples of positive discipline
Use transgressions as opportunities to teach: when a child engages in harmful or unsafe behavior, intervene firmly, and then use induction, which motivates children to make amends and behave pro socially
Reduce opportunities for miss behavior: on long car trips, bring back seat activities that relieve children's restlessness. As a result, children learn to occupy themselves constructively when options are limited
Provide reasons for rules: when children appreciate that rules are fair to all concerned, not arbitrary, they strive to follow the rules because they are reasonable and rational
Arrange for children to participate in family routines and duties
Encourage mature behavior
Be sensitive to children's physical and emotional resources: when children are tired, I'll, or bored, they are likely to engage in attention-getting, disorganized, or otherwise improper behavior as a reaction to discomfort
Use of physical punishment is highest among low-SES minority parents/middle-SES white parents
Low-SES ethnic minority parents who are more likely than middle-SES white parents to advocates slaps and spankings
Although corporal punishment is linked with a wide variety of negative child outcomes, exceptions do exist. Describe these exceptions
In Caucasian-American families, physical punishment was positively associated with adolescent aggression and antisocial behavior. In African-American families by contrast, the more mothers had disciplined physically in childhood, the less their teenagers displayed angry, acting out behavior and got into trouble at school and with the police
Discuss differences in the ways that African-American and Caucasian American families view physical punishment
African-American: such discipline is culturally approved, generally mild, delivered in a context of parental warmth, and aimed at helping children become responsible adults
Caucasian-American: typically consider physical punishment to be wrong, so when they resort to it, they are often highly agitated and rejecting of the child
As a result, most black children Mayview spanking as a practice carried out with their best interests in mind, whereas white children may regard it as an act of personal aggression
Define initiative versus guilt, and describe how it is exhibited in preschoolers
Young children have a new sense of purposefulness. They are eager to tackle new tasks, join in activities with peers, and discover what they can do with the help of adults and they also make strides in conscious development
In what major way does the cognitive-developmental perspective of morality differ from the psychoanalytic and social learning approaches?
The psychoanalytic and behaviorist approach is to morality focus on how children acquire ready-made standards of good conduct from adults
In contrast, the cognitive-developmental perspective regards children as active thinkers about social rules. As early as the preschool years, children make moral judgments, deciding what is right or wrong on the basis of concepts they construct about justice and fairness
Preschoolers are able to distinguish _________ imperatives, which protect peoples rights and welfare, from two other forms of action: _______ conventions, or customs determined solely by consensus, such as table manners and and dress style, and matters of _______ _______ , which do not violate rights or harm others, are not socially regulated, and therefore are up to the individual
Moral imperative's; social conventions; matters of personal choice
Provide an example of how young children learn to make distinctions between moral imperative's and social conventions
According to cognitive-developmental serious, they actively make sense of their experiences. They observe that after a moral offense, peers respond with strong negative emotion, describe their own injury or loss, tell another child to stop, or retaliate. And an adult who intervenes is likely to call attention to the rights and feelings of the victim. In contrast, violations of social convention elicit less intense peer reactions, and in these situations, adults usually demand obedience without explanation or point to the importance of keeping order
List three features of parent communication that help children reason about morality
Parents adapt their communications about fighting, honesty, and ownership to what their children can understand, tell stories with moral implications, encourage prosocial behavior, and gently stimulate the child to think further, without being hostile or critical
By the end of the preschool years, two general types of aggression emerge. The most common is ________ aggression, aimed at obtaining an object, privilege, or space with no deliberate intent to harm. The other type is __________ aggression, which is intended to hurt another person
Proactive or instrumental aggression; reactive or hostile aggression
This type of aggression harms others through physical injury-pushing, hitting, kicking, or punching others, or destroying another's property
This type of aggression harms others through threats of physical aggression, name-calling, or hostile teasing
This type of aggression damages another's peer relationships through social exclusion, malicious gossip, or friendship manipulation
In early childhood, physical/verbal aggression gradually replaces physical/verbal aggression. What accounts for this change?
Verbal aggression gradually replaces physical aggression as language develops and adults and peers react negatively and strongly to physical attacks. Proactive aggression declines as preschoolers improve capacity to delay gratification enables them to resist grabbing others possessions. But reactive aggression in the verbal and relational forms tends to rise over early and middle childhood
Boys/girls display overall rates of aggression that are much higher than boys/girls
What are three negative outcomes for highly aggressive children?
These children are addressed for later internalizing and externalizing difficulties and social skills deficits, including loneliness, anxiety, depression, poor quality friendships, and anti-social activity in middle childhood and adolescence
Provide an example of how a hostile family atmosphere creates a cycle of aggression
The pattern begins with forceful discipline, which occurs more often with stressed life experiences, a parent with an unstable personality, or a temperamentally difficult child. Typically, the parents threatens, criticizes, and punishes, and the child wines, yells, and refuses until the parent gives in. At the end of each exchange, both parent and child get relief from stopping the unpleasant behavior of the other, so the behavior repeats and escalates.
True or false: girls are more likely than boys to be targets of harsh physical discipline and parental inconsistency
False, boys are more likely than girls to be targets because they are more active and impulsive and therefore harder to control
Compare deficits in social information-processing for children high in reactive aggression and those high in proactive aggression
Reactive aggression: often see hostile intent where it does not exist- in situations where peers intentions are unclear, where harm is accidental, and even where peers are trying to be helpful. When such children feel threatened, they are especially likely to interpret accidental mishaps as hostile and as a result, they make many unprovoked attacks, which trigger aggressive retaliation
Proactive aggression: they believe there are more benefits and fewer costs for engaging in destructive ask and they are more likely to think that aggression works, producing material rewards and reducing others unpleasant behaviors. Thus, they callously use aggression to advance their own goals and are relatively unconcerned about causing suffering in others, an aggressive style associated with later, more severe conduct problems, violent behavior, and delinquency
True or false: violent content in children's programming occurs at above-average rates, and cartoons are the most violent
Explain why young children are especially likely to be influenced by television
Because they believe that much TV fiction is real and accept what they see uncritically
True or false: media violence hardens children to aggression, making them more willing to tolerate it in others. Briefly explain your response
True. Viewers quickly habituate, responding with reduced arousal to real world instances and tolerating more aggression in others. Heavy viewers believe that there is much more violence in society then there actually is-and effect that is especially strong for children who perceive media violence to be relevant to their own lives.
List three strategies parents can use to regulate children's TV viewing and computer use
Limit TV viewing and computer use: vied clear rules limiting my children can view on TV and do you want to computer and stick to them. Avoid using the TV or the computer as a babysitter and do not put it in a child's bedroom
Avoid using TV or computer time as a reward: when TV or computer access is used as a reward or withheld as punishment, children become increasingly attracted to it
When possible, watch TV with children, helping them understand what they see
Link TV content to every day learning experiences: such as going to the zoo or library
Model good TV and computer practices
List several ways to help parents and children break the cycle of hostility between family members
Parents: see a therapist who can coach them in alternatives to their inept practices. Learn to pair commands with reasons, and to replace verbal insults and spankings with more effective punishment. Encourage parents to be warmer and to give more attention and approval for prosocial acts. May also help with marital problems
Children: parents can teach children more successful ways of relating to peers and have them practice the skills and praise them when they use them. Parents can also encourage children to talk about a playmates feelings and to express their own. As they do this, take the perspective of others, empathize, and feel sympathetic concern, lashing out at peers can decline
Refers to any association of objects, activities, roles, or traits with one sex or the other in ways that conform to cultural stereotypes
Preschoolers gender stereotypes are flexible/rigid. Explain your answer
Rigid. When children were asked whether gender stereotypes could be violated, Half or more of three and five-year-olds answered no to clothing, hairstyle, certain place styles, and play with certain boys. Most 3 to 6-year-olds are firm about not wanting to be friends with a child who violates a gender stereotype or to attend a school where such violations are allowed
True or false: most preschoolers believe that characteristics associated with each sex, for example activities, clothes, hairstyles, and occupation, determine whether a person is male or female
True. They have trouble understanding that males and females can be different in terms of their bodies but similar in many other ways
List four sex differences in play and personality traits that are widespread among mammalian species
Male activity level and physical aggression, female emotional sensitivity, and a preference for same-sex playmates
Eleanor Maccoby argues that ____ _______ affect human play styles, leading to rough, noisy movements among boys and calm, gentle actions among girls
Girls exposed to high levels of androgens prenatally display more/less masculine behavior
True or false: after sex reassignment surgery, Bruce-renamed Brenda-readily adopted feminine social and personality characteristics
Explain how David Reimers development confirms the impact of genetic sex and prenatal hormones on a person's sense of self as a male or female
His gender reassignment failed because his male biology overwhelmingly demanded a consistent sexual identity.
What does David Reimers childhood reveal about the importance of environmental influences on gender typing?
David expressed outrage at adult encouragement of dependency in girls because he had experienced it firsthand
Provide an example of how parents encourage gender-stereotyped beliefs and behavior in their children
Many parents prefer that their children play with gender-appropriate toys and they tend to describe achievement, competition, and control of emotion as important for sons and warmth, lady like behavior, and closely supervised activities as important for daughters
Parenting practices reflect these beliefs. Parents give their sons toys that stress action and competition such as guns, cars, tools, and footballs and their daughters toys that emphasize nurturance, cooperation, and physical attractiveness such as dolls, tea sets, and jewelry.
Of the two sexes, girls/boys are more clearly gender stereotyped. Why might this be the case?
Boys are more gender tight. Fathers, especially, are more insistent that boys conform to gender roles. They place more pressure to achieve on sons than on daughters and are less tolerant of cross-gender behavior in their sons.
Provide an example of how preschool teachers contribute to children's gender-role learning
Teachers give girls more encouragement to participate in adult structured activities and girls frequently cluster around the teacher, following directions, while boys are attracted to play areas where adults are minimally involved. Teachers also use more disapproval and control and discipline with boys. When girls miss behave, teachers tend to negotiate, coming up with a joint plan to improve behavior
Peer rejection is greater for girls/boys who frequently engage in cross-gender behavior
Discuss the different styles of social influence promoted within gender-segregated peer groups
Boys: to get their way in large group play, boys often rely on commands, threats, and physical force.
Girls: girls preference for playing in pairs leads to greater concern with the partners needs, evident in girls use of polite requests, persuasion, and acceptance
What are three factors that work together to sustain gender segregation and the gender typing that occurs within it
Over time, children come to believe in the correctness of gender segregated play, which further strengthens gender segregation and gender stereotype activities. As boys and girls separate, in group favoritism-more positive evaluations of members of one's own gender-becomes another factor that sustains the separate social worlds of boys and girls, resulting in two distinct subcultures of shared knowledge, beliefs, interests, and behaviors
How do TV and media influence children's endorsement of gender stereotypes?
Although today's TV programs include more career-oriented women than in the past, female characters continue to be young, attractive, caring, emotional, and victimized and to be seen in romantic and family contexts. In contrast, male characters are usually dominant and powerful
An image of oneself as relatively masculine or feminine in characteristics
How is gender identity measured?
By asking children to raise themselves on personality traits. A child or adult with the masculine identity score is high on traditionally masculine items such as ambitious, competitive, and self-sufficient and low on traditionally feminine items such as affectionate, cheerful, and soft-spoken. Someone with a feminine identity does the reverse
Refers to a type of gender identity in which the person scores highly on both masculine and feminine personality characteristics
True or false: children and adults with a feminine gender identity generally have higher self-esteem than individuals who identify as masculine or androgynous. Explain why or why not.
False, masculine and androgynous children and adults have higher self-esteem then feminine individual, perhaps because many typically feminine traits are not highly valued by society.
Also, androgynous individuals are more adaptable-able to show masculine independence or feminine sensitivity, depending on the situation
Contrast social learning and cognitive-developmental accounts of the emergence of gender identity
According to social learning theory, behavior comes before self-perceptions. Preschoolers first acquire gender type responses through modeling and reinforcement and only later organize these behaviors into gender-linked ideas about themselves
Cognitive-developmental theory maintains that self-perceptions come before behavior. Over the preschool years, children acquire a cognitive appreciation of the permanence of their sex and use this knowledge to guide their behavior
A full understanding of the biologically-based permanence of gender, including the realization that sex remains the same overtime, even if clothing, hairstyle, and play activities change
Mastery of gender constancy occurs in a three step sequence:
1. Gender labeling: correct meaning of one's own and others' sex
2. Gender stability: understanding that gender remains the same over time
3. Gender consistency: realization that gender is not altered by superficial changes in clothing or activities
Is gender constancy responsible for children's gender-typed behavior? Why or why not?
Evidence for this assumption is weak. Gender-appropriate behavior appears so early in the preschool years that it's initial appearance must result from modeling and reinforcement, as social learning theory suggests. Some evidence suggests that gender constancy actually contributes to the emergence of more flexible gender role attitudes during the school years but overall effect is not great
An information-processing approach to gender typing that combines social learning and cognitive-developmental features. It explains how environmental pressures and children's cognitions work together to shape gender-role development
Gender schema theory
Masculine and feminine categories children use to interpret their world
As soon as preschoolers can label their own gender, they select gender schemas consistent with it and apply those categories to themselves. There self-perceptions then become gender typed and serve as additional schemas the children used to process information and guide their own behavior
How does gender-schematic thinking affect children's behavior?
There are different cognitive pathways for children who often apply gender schemas to their experiences and those who rarely do
For a gender-schematic child who often applies gender schemas to their experiences, their gender-salient filter immediately makes gender highly relevant
For a gender-aschematic child, one who seldom views the world in gender-linked terms, they will respond based on their interests
What are three ways that parents and teachers can reduce gender stereotyping in young children?
Delay preschoolers exposure to gender-stereotype messages. Adults can begin by limiting traditional gender roles in their own behavior and by providing children with nontraditional alternatives, for example, parents can take turns making dinner, bathing children, and driving the family car, and they can give their sons and daughters both trucks and dolls and both pink and blue clothing
Teachers can make sure that all children spend time in mixed-gender play activities and in both adult-structured and unstructured pursuits
Adults can avoid language that conveys gender stereotypes and can shield children from media presentations that do the same
Based on the research findings of Baumrind and others, what are three features that consistently differentiate between more and less effective child-rearing styles?
Acceptance and involvement, control, and autonomy granting
The most successful approach to child rearing, involves high acceptance and involvement, adaptive control techniques, and appropriate autonomy granting
Associated child outcomes: upbeat mood, self-control, persistence, cooperativeness, high self-esteem, academic success
A child-rearing style low in acceptance and involvement, high in coercive control, and low in autonomy granting
Associated child outcomes: anxiety, low self-esteem and self reliance, hostile reactions to frustration, high anger, dependence in girls, poor school performance
A child-rearing style that is warm and accepting but uninvolved. Parents are either overindulgent or inattentive and engage in little control
Associated child outcomes: impulsivity, disobedience, rebellion, dependent and nonachieving, antisocial behavior
A child rearing style that combines low acceptance and involvement with little control and general indifference to autonomy
Associated child outcomes: four emotional self-regulation, poor school achievement, antisocial behavior
Authoritarian/authoritative parents engage in a subtle type of control called _______ control, in which they intrude on and manipulate children's verbal expression, individuality, and attachments to parents
Which child-rearing approach is the most successful, and why?
The authoritative child rearing approach. Promotes maturity and children of diverse temperaments and seems to create a positive emotional context for parental influence
At its extreme, uninvolved parenting is a form of child maltreatment called
Neglect. Disrupts virtually all aspects of development
What are for reasons that authoritative parenting is especially effective?
Warm, involved parents who are secure in the standards they hold for their children provide models of caring concern as well as confident, self control behavior
Children are far more likely to comply with and internalize control that appears fair and reasonable, not arbitrary
By making demands and engaging in autonomy granting that matches children's ability to take responsibility for their own behavior, I thought he'd of parents let children know that they are competent individuals who can do things successfully for themselves. In this way, parents foster favorable self-esteem and cognitive and social maturity
Supportive aspects of the authoritative style, including parental except dents, involvement, and rational control, are a powerful source of resilience, protecting children from the negative effects of family stress and poverty
Describe how the parenting practices of the following cultural groups often differ from those of Caucasian Americans:
Hispanic, Asian Pacific island, and Caribbean
Hispanic, Asian Pacific island, Caribbean: firm insistence on respect for parental authority is paired with high parental warm-a combination suited to promoting competence and strong feelings of family loyalty. Hispanic fathers typically spend much time with their children and are warm and sensitive. In Caribbean families that have immigrated to the US, fathers authoritativeness but not mothers, predicted preschoolers literacy and math skills, probably because Caribbean Father's take a larger role in guiding their children's academic progress
African-American: low SES parents tend to expect immediate obedience, regarding strictness as fostering self-control and a watchful attitude in risky surroundings. African-American parents who use more controlling strategies tend to have more cognitively and socially competent children. Most African-American parents who you strict discipline use physical punishment sparingly and combine it with warmth and reasoning
What are several contextual factors that contribute to successful parenting?
Personal characteristics of the child and parent, SES, access to extended family and community supports, cultural values and practices, and public policies
List and describe for forms of child maltreatment
Physical abuse: assaults such as shaking, kicking, biting, punching, or stabbing that inflict physical injury
Sexual abuse: fondling, intercourse, exhibitionism, commercial exploitation through prostitution or production of pornography, and other forms of sexual exploitation
Neglect: failure to meet a child's basic needs for food, clothing, medical attention, education, or supervision
Emotional abuse: acts that could cause serious mental or behavioral disorders, including social isolation, repeated unreasonable demands, ridicule, humiliation, intimidation, or terrorizing
Parents/strangers commit more than 80% of abuse of incidents
True or false: researchers have identified an abusive personality type
False, a single abusive personality type does not exist. Parents who were abused as children do not necessarily become abusers and sometimes even normal parents harm their children
List several parent, child, and family environment characteristics associated with an increased likelihood of abuse
Parent: psychological disturbance, alcohol and drug abuse, history of abuse as a child, belief in harsh, physical discipline, desire to satisfy unmet emotional needs through the child, unreasonable expectations for the child's behavior, low educational level
Child: premature or very sick baby, difficult temperament, inattentiveness and overactivity, other developmental problems
Family: low income or poverty, homelessness, marital instability, social isolation, partner abuse, frequent moves, large families with closely spaced children, overcrowded living conditions, disorganized household, lack of study employment, other signs of high life stress
What are two reasons that most abusive parents are isolated from supportive ties to their communities?
Because of their life histories, many have learned to miss trust and avoid others and are poorly skilled at establishing and maintaining positive relationships. Also, maltreating parents are more likely to live in unstable, rundown neighborhoods that provide few links between family and community, such as parks, childcare centers, preschool programs, recreation centers, and religious institutions
Societies that view violence as an appropriate way to solve problems set the stage for child abuse. These conditions do/do not exist in the United States and Canada. Explain your answer
Widespread support exists for use of physical force with children and where as many countries have outlawed physical punishment, a measure that dampens both physical discipline and abuse, every industrialized nation except the United States and Canada now prohibits corporal punishment in schools
Summarize the consequences of child maltreatment for abused children
Impair the development of emotional self-regulation, empathy and sympathy, self-concept, social skills, and academic motivation. Over time these youngsters show serious adjustment problems, including severe depression, aggressive behavior, pier difficulties, substance abuse, and delinquency, including violent crime
Profound distress including emotional insecurity leading to aggression as a way of solving problems
May attempt suicide and at school they present serious discipline problems which also interfere with academic achievement and further undermine their chances for life success
Repeated abuse is associated with central nervous system damage, including abnormal EEG brainwave activity, reduce size and impaired functioning of the cerebral cortex and corpus Colosso him, and atypical production of the stress hormone cortisol
Discuss strategies for preventing child maltreatment in the family
Teaching high-risk parents effect of child rearing strategies, providing direct experience with children in high school child development courses, and developing broad social programs aimed at improving economic and neighborhood conditions and community services for at risk families
Providing social supports to families to help ease parental stress
Explain how the healthy families America program works to reduce abuse and neglect
Identifies families at risk for maltreatment during pregnancy or at birth and each receive three years of home visitation in which a trained worker helps parents manage crises, encourages effective child-rearing, and puts parents in touch with community services to meet their own children's needs