Flashcards in Chapter 10: Family, Home, and Society Throughout the Life Span Deck (113):
Bronfenbrenner constructed a model depicting the ____ of develoment and their interrelationships as a series of embedded, concentric circles.
The innermost circles is the ______, in which the child directly participates. i.e. family, day care, or school
A child's experience in one microsystem affects his or her experinces in another microsystem through the ______.
i.e. a child whose parents are divorcing may start doing poorly in school
The ____ is where interrelationsips between events in contexts in which the child does not directly participate affect the child.
i.e. a parent who is experiencing stress at work may interact less with his or her child at home
The _____ affects each of the other systems. It is the outermost area that encircles all of the other systems in the model.
The macrosytem is the ______ context and it contains the values and attitudes shared by the members of teh culture.
i.e. parenting customs vary across different cultures. these customs affect the child's experinces in the microsystem of the family
_____ theory is the theorectical perspective that views the family as an organized, whole unit with integrated parts.
family systems theory
Members of the family ____ roles that are reciprocally determined interrelationsips like mother-child, father-child, and mother-father.
The behavior of each family member affects the whole system, and relationships between two or more members of the family _____ the whole family.
There are different family structures other than the traditional _____ family.
The ____ family is a household that consists of multiple generations of the same family as in when grandparents live in the home.
The _____ or reconstituted family is a family strucutre that is the result of remarriage.
More households are non traditional today due to the high rate of _____ and remarriage, and the increasing numbers of same sex parent households, and ______ households.
Today many households are headed by _____ working parents raising concern regarding the degree of supervision children have after school and the amount of time parents spend with their children.
_____ children are children who go home to an empty house after school. Many of these children suffer no ill effects, but these are the children whose parents monitor them through cell phone calls and who establish rules for what the child can and cannot do.
Research clearly shows that it is the quality of the time parents spend with their children that affects their development, not the _____ of time.
Fathers in dual working households participate more in child care than those in household with _____ mothers.
stay at home mothers
Family systems theory also describes a family _____.
Theorists in this perspective view the family unit as moving through a sequence of phases analogous to a _____ in a developing individual.
Family roles are affected by the phase of the family and ______ satifsfactin changes across the phases.
Marital satisfaction is at a peak before the ____, decreases thereafter until the launching phase, where is begins to increase again.
The ____ phase is when young adult children leave the home. It used to be called the empty nest stage.
Recent research indicates that most parents enjoy a renewal in their relationship and are very _____ during the launching phase.
Baumrind conducted a longitudinal study of parenting and developed a system of classifying _____ styles.
Baumrind found she could classify parents into ____ styles and that there are predictable developmental outcomes for children raised with each ______.
The 4 parenting style according to Baumrind
____ parents are affectionate and loving but provide control when necessary and set limits.
Authoritative parents tend to have children that are self-reliant, competent, and ______.
_____ parents demand unquestioning obedience and use punishment to control behavior. They are less likely to be affectionate.
______ parents tend to children that are unhappy, distrustful, ineffective in social interactions, and often become dependent adults.
_____ parents make few demands, allow children to make their own decisions, and use inconsistent dicipline.
_____ parents children tend to be immature, lack self control and explore less
______ parents do not pay attention to the needs of the child and provide no discipline, guidance, love or affection.
______ parents tend to have children that are at risk for anti-social behavior.
Longitudinal research has show that parents style of parenting changes across the _____ of family life. They may adopt one style when children are young, but then adjust this style as the children age and approach the launching phase.
_____ relationships are important to the social development of the child.
Children who grow up with siblings have an advantage over their only-children peers when they begin forming _____.
Only children are less _____ compared to their counterparts with siblings.
____ is the competition that can arise between siblings. This competition tends to rise through childhood as school-age children experience more things on which they can compete, but tends to decrease in adolescence as teenagers spend less time in the home and more time with friends.
Siblings can be very close, benefit from interactions with each other, yet fiercely ______.
argue and fight
Older siblings are often ____ for younger siblings and serve as role models and teachers.
The quality of the adolescent-parent relationship depends on the degree to which parents and adolescents successfully _____ this relationship.
A major task of adolescense is achieving ____, teh ability to make decisions independently. In order to accomplish this taks, adolescents need to make attempts to be independent even if these attempts sometimes fail.
If parents are too restrictive and continue to control their adolescents lives as much as when they were children, adolescents will not have the opportunity to develop _____.
Parents tend to give greater autonomy as the adolescent shows more _____.
The ____ parenting style leads to the best outcomes with adolescents as it did with younger children.
The majority of adult children have continued strong relationships which morph into _____, rather than parent child relationships.
Adult children tend to have signifiicant contact with their aging parents even if they do not live together or in close ____.
As parents age they may rely on children for their care, a change that is referred to as a _____.
The ______ or squeeze is when adult children are responsible for the care of aging parents as well as their own children. This is a significant stress and the responsibility usually falls more on daughters and _____.
middle generation sandwhich
daughters in law
The ____ role is a source of great satisfaction for middle and older adults.
There have been 3 major trends facing the developing family over the past 3 decades: an increase in divorce, an increase in working _____, and increase in single parent families.
Because every household is different it is difficult to generalize the effect of _____ or single parenting on the family, but trends to do occur
A parent who is secure and rewarded in the workplace deals better with divorce or _____.
A positive network of ____ and family provides support, lending a more positive aspect to the divorce or single parenthood.
When both parents play a role in raising the child even though divorced, there is a more _____ outcome.
The quality of the relationship with the non-custodial parent is a key factor that predicts outcomes of _____. The better the quality of this relationship, the better the children's developmental outcomes.
The degree of post-divorce conflict in turn predicts the quality of the relationship with the _____ parent.
There are ____ aspects that affect the development of a child dealing with divorce.
The five aspects that affect the development of a child dealing with divorce include the levels of stress and amount of support at the time of divorce; ____; the age of the child; the amount of time since the change; and the parents' response to the change
the sex or the child
Parents from different ____ tend to adopt different parenting style and customs, and value different developmental outcomes for their children.
Lower and working class parents tend to adopt the authoritarian parenting style more than ______ and _____ class parents, because they tend to value obedience.
middle and upper class
____ to authority may be valued because parents assume their own children will be working in blue collar jobs in which they are required to be compliant.
Lower and working class parents usually express ____ affection toward children and perhaps this is due to the greater number of stressors they have in their lives from economic hardships and the poor environments in which they are forced to live. They also are ____ educated and therefore may lack knowledge about how to parent more effectively.
Culture influences _____ style.
There are reliable differences in parenting style across to the two broad types of cultures; collectivistic and _____.
A ____ culture values the greater good, and members who work toward the goals of the group, like the family.
Members of ____ cultures value and reward individual achievement and promote competition among individuals.
The hispanic and _____ cultures are collectivistic.
European-American culture is _____.
Parents who are hispanic or japanese tend to be _____ in their parenting sytle because those cultures value respect and obedience to authority.
European-American parents tend to be _____ in their parenting style because they value the development outcomes of independence and autonomy.
If authoritarian parenting is viewed as an indication that parents love and care about their children, as it is in the ____ culture, the development outcomes will actually be positive.
The media, particularly tv and ____, have a significant effect on children's development.
Research has shown that preschoolers engage in tv viewing more than any other activity other than ____
Children between the ages of 2 and 11 watch an average of over ___ hours of tv per week.
The average decline by only ____ hours or so for those who are 12 to 17 years old.
Educational tv programs have been found to have a ____ effect on children's cognitive development and prosocial behavior.
Bandura and his colleagues showes in a classic experiment, children will imitate and aggressive model that they see on ____.
Children who watch more _____ programs are more aggressive than their counterparts.
Younger children are also frightened by the ____ of some tv shows and do not understand the difference between reality and fiction.
TV viewing is also negatively correlated with the amount of ______ and communication
____ technology is both potentially beneficial and harmful.
The internet provides children access to a great deeal of appropriate and ______, as well as inappropriate and harmful information.
Computer video games can be very violent and unlike merely observing violence in a tv show, violent video games ____ children's violent behavior. Players can earn points by killing or destroying.
Use of the computer, like tv viewing, has the capacity to decrease the time ____ spend interacting with each other.
_____ and child sexual abuse are found in all cultures and across all socioeconomic classes.
Child ____ is failure to protect children from harm or failure to meet their biological and medical need.
Studies of child mistreatment have found a link between ______ and abuse.
The difficult temperament is the _____ of the three temperaments for caregivers to deal with and perhaps that is why children with this temperament are at greater risk of abuse.
_____ offenders tend to target children who are isolated and needy. Sexual offenders play on these children's vulnerabilities and my gain the trust of children because they are socially isolate and crave _____.
Young infants who are abused or neglected often develop a syndrome called ______.
failure to thrive
_____ of child sexual abuse frequently develop post traumatic stress disorder and engage in sexualized behavior.
A smaller number of victims of child sexual abuse develop serious _______ disorders, such as multiple personality disorder.
_____ are most often the abuser.
Parents who abuse their children tend to have a history of ____ themselves, have little social support, and low self esteem, and are hypersensitive to their children's bad behavior.
Studies have shown that abusers have signficantly higher levels of emotional ____ under stressful conditions compared to non abusers. Intervention programs that focus on social support for these parents tend to be most successful.
Kubler Ross provided the first psychological model of _____ and ____.
death and dying
Kubler Ross studied death and dying by conducting in depth interviews with ____.
terminally ill patients
The first stage in the death and dying model is _____, when the patient refuses to accept the diagnosis and prognosis of death.
A person in ____ might spend a lot of time and money seeking other medical opinions.
The 2nd stage of teh dying and death stage theory is _____.
After the anger phase, the person enters the stage of ______, trying to delay the inevitable.
When anger and bargaining don't help a period of _____ ensures.
The final stage of Kubler ROss's theory is _____, when patients finally accept their impending death. They may participate in planning their own funeral and put their affairs in order.
Critics argue that the Kubler Ross stage theory has flaws, and all people do not go through these stages in the same ____, and not all dying patients come to accept their death.
_____ is the distressful responding to teh death of a loved one.
grief or bereavement
Psychologists argue that grief is a process that proceeds through the same stages as in the ______ model of death and dying.
_____ also effects how people deal with death and the dying process. Each culture has death and bereavement rituals, attitudes toward death, and expectations for the behavior of those who are bereaved.
_____ is grief that begins before the loved one's death. Family members often begin the grief process when they learn that a loved one has a terminal illness.
______ is actively assisting the death of a terminally ill person who has a very poor quality of life.
A ____ is a legal document that outlines the individuals's wishes with regard to end of life care.