Chapter 10: Family, Home, and Society Throughout the Life Span Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 10: Family, Home, and Society Throughout the Life Span Deck (113):
1

Bronfenbrenner constructed a model depicting the ____ of develoment and their interrelationships as a series of embedded, concentric circles.

systems

2

The innermost circles is the ______, in which the child directly participates. i.e. family, day care, or school

microsystem

3

A child's experience in one microsystem affects his or her experinces in another microsystem through the ______.

meosystem
i.e. a child whose parents are divorcing may start doing poorly in school

4

The ____ is where interrelationsips between events in contexts in which the child does not directly participate affect the child.

exosystem
i.e. a parent who is experiencing stress at work may interact less with his or her child at home

5

The _____ affects each of the other systems. It is the outermost area that encircles all of the other systems in the model.

macrosystem

6

The macrosytem is the ______ context and it contains the values and attitudes shared by the members of teh culture.

sociolcultural
i.e. parenting customs vary across different cultures. these customs affect the child's experinces in the microsystem of the family

7

_____ theory is the theorectical perspective that views the family as an organized, whole unit with integrated parts.

family systems theory

8

Members of the family ____ roles that are reciprocally determined interrelationsips like mother-child, father-child, and mother-father.

adopt

9

The behavior of each family member affects the whole system, and relationships between two or more members of the family _____ the whole family.

affect

10

There are different family structures other than the traditional _____ family.

nuclear

11

The ____ family is a household that consists of multiple generations of the same family as in when grandparents live in the home.

beanpole family

12

The _____ or reconstituted family is a family strucutre that is the result of remarriage.

blended

13

More households are non traditional today due to the high rate of _____ and remarriage, and the increasing numbers of same sex parent households, and ______ households.

divorce
single parent

14

Today many households are headed by _____ working parents raising concern regarding the degree of supervision children have after school and the amount of time parents spend with their children.

dual

15

_____ children are children who go home to an empty house after school. Many of these children suffer no ill effects, but these are the children whose parents monitor them through cell phone calls and who establish rules for what the child can and cannot do.

latchkey children

16

Research clearly shows that it is the quality of the time parents spend with their children that affects their development, not the _____ of time.

quantity

17

Fathers in dual working households participate more in child care than those in household with _____ mothers.

stay at home mothers

18

Family systems theory also describes a family _____.

life cycle

19

Theorists in this perspective view the family unit as moving through a sequence of phases analogous to a _____ in a developing individual.

stage model

20

Family roles are affected by the phase of the family and ______ satifsfactin changes across the phases.

marital

21

Marital satisfaction is at a peak before the ____, decreases thereafter until the launching phase, where is begins to increase again.

first child

22

The ____ phase is when young adult children leave the home. It used to be called the empty nest stage.

launching phase

23

Recent research indicates that most parents enjoy a renewal in their relationship and are very _____ during the launching phase.

satisfied

24

Baumrind conducted a longitudinal study of parenting and developed a system of classifying _____ styles.

parenting

25

Baumrind found she could classify parents into ____ styles and that there are predictable developmental outcomes for children raised with each ______.

4
parenting style

26

The 4 parenting style according to Baumrind

authoritative
authoritarian
permissive
neglectful/univolved

27

____ parents are affectionate and loving but provide control when necessary and set limits.

authoritative parenting

28

Authoritative parents tend to have children that are self-reliant, competent, and ______.

socially responsible

29

_____ parents demand unquestioning obedience and use punishment to control behavior. They are less likely to be affectionate.

authoritarian parents

30

______ parents tend to children that are unhappy, distrustful, ineffective in social interactions, and often become dependent adults.

authoritarian parents

31

_____ parents make few demands, allow children to make their own decisions, and use inconsistent dicipline.

permissive parents

32

_____ parents children tend to be immature, lack self control and explore less

permissive

33

______ parents do not pay attention to the needs of the child and provide no discipline, guidance, love or affection.

neglectful/uninvolved parents

34

______ parents tend to have children that are at risk for anti-social behavior.

neglectful/uninvolved parents

35

Longitudinal research has show that parents style of parenting changes across the _____ of family life. They may adopt one style when children are young, but then adjust this style as the children age and approach the launching phase.

stages

36

_____ relationships are important to the social development of the child.

sibling

37

Children who grow up with siblings have an advantage over their only-children peers when they begin forming _____.

friendships.

38

Only children are less _____ compared to their counterparts with siblings.

socially accepted

39

____ is the competition that can arise between siblings. This competition tends to rise through childhood as school-age children experience more things on which they can compete, but tends to decrease in adolescence as teenagers spend less time in the home and more time with friends.

sibling rivalry

40

Siblings can be very close, benefit from interactions with each other, yet fiercely ______.

argue and fight

41

Older siblings are often ____ for younger siblings and serve as role models and teachers.

caregivers

42

The quality of the adolescent-parent relationship depends on the degree to which parents and adolescents successfully _____ this relationship.

renegotiate

43

A major task of adolescense is achieving ____, teh ability to make decisions independently. In order to accomplish this taks, adolescents need to make attempts to be independent even if these attempts sometimes fail.

autonomy

44

If parents are too restrictive and continue to control their adolescents lives as much as when they were children, adolescents will not have the opportunity to develop _____.

independence

45

Parents tend to give greater autonomy as the adolescent shows more _____.

autonomy

46

The ____ parenting style leads to the best outcomes with adolescents as it did with younger children.

authoritative

47

The majority of adult children have continued strong relationships which morph into _____, rather than parent child relationships.

friendships

48

Adult children tend to have signifiicant contact with their aging parents even if they do not live together or in close ____.

proximity

49

As parents age they may rely on children for their care, a change that is referred to as a _____.

role reversal

50

The ______ or squeeze is when adult children are responsible for the care of aging parents as well as their own children. This is a significant stress and the responsibility usually falls more on daughters and _____.

middle generation sandwhich
daughters in law

51

The ____ role is a source of great satisfaction for middle and older adults.

grandparent

52

There have been 3 major trends facing the developing family over the past 3 decades: an increase in divorce, an increase in working _____, and increase in single parent families.

mothers

53

Because every household is different it is difficult to generalize the effect of _____ or single parenting on the family, but trends to do occur

divorce.

54

A parent who is secure and rewarded in the workplace deals better with divorce or _____.

single parenthood

55

A positive network of ____ and family provides support, lending a more positive aspect to the divorce or single parenthood.

friends

56

When both parents play a role in raising the child even though divorced, there is a more _____ outcome.

positive

57

The quality of the relationship with the non-custodial parent is a key factor that predicts outcomes of _____. The better the quality of this relationship, the better the children's developmental outcomes.

divorce

58

The degree of post-divorce conflict in turn predicts the quality of the relationship with the _____ parent.

non-custodial

59

There are ____ aspects that affect the development of a child dealing with divorce.

five

60

The five aspects that affect the development of a child dealing with divorce include the levels of stress and amount of support at the time of divorce; ____; the age of the child; the amount of time since the change; and the parents' response to the change

the sex or the child

61

Parents from different ____ tend to adopt different parenting style and customs, and value different developmental outcomes for their children.

social classes

62

Lower and working class parents tend to adopt the authoritarian parenting style more than ______ and _____ class parents, because they tend to value obedience.

middle and upper class

63

____ to authority may be valued because parents assume their own children will be working in blue collar jobs in which they are required to be compliant.

obedience

64

Lower and working class parents usually express ____ affection toward children and perhaps this is due to the greater number of stressors they have in their lives from economic hardships and the poor environments in which they are forced to live. They also are ____ educated and therefore may lack knowledge about how to parent more effectively.

less
less

65

Culture influences _____ style.

parenting

66

There are reliable differences in parenting style across to the two broad types of cultures; collectivistic and _____.

indivdiualistic

67

A ____ culture values the greater good, and members who work toward the goals of the group, like the family.

collectivist

68

Members of ____ cultures value and reward individual achievement and promote competition among individuals.

individualistic

69

The hispanic and _____ cultures are collectivistic.

japanese

70

European-American culture is _____.

individualistic

71

Parents who are hispanic or japanese tend to be _____ in their parenting sytle because those cultures value respect and obedience to authority.

authoritarian

72

European-American parents tend to be _____ in their parenting style because they value the development outcomes of independence and autonomy.

authoritative

73

If authoritarian parenting is viewed as an indication that parents love and care about their children, as it is in the ____ culture, the development outcomes will actually be positive.

chinese

74

The media, particularly tv and ____, have a significant effect on children's development.

computers

75

Research has shown that preschoolers engage in tv viewing more than any other activity other than ____

sleeping

76

Children between the ages of 2 and 11 watch an average of over ___ hours of tv per week.

22

77

The average decline by only ____ hours or so for those who are 12 to 17 years old.

2

78

Educational tv programs have been found to have a ____ effect on children's cognitive development and prosocial behavior.

positive

79

Bandura and his colleagues showes in a classic experiment, children will imitate and aggressive model that they see on ____.

tv

80

Children who watch more _____ programs are more aggressive than their counterparts.

violent

81

Younger children are also frightened by the ____ of some tv shows and do not understand the difference between reality and fiction.

content

82

TV viewing is also negatively correlated with the amount of ______ and communication

family interaction

83

____ technology is both potentially beneficial and harmful.

computer

84

The internet provides children access to a great deeal of appropriate and ______, as well as inappropriate and harmful information.

educational

85

Computer video games can be very violent and unlike merely observing violence in a tv show, violent video games ____ children's violent behavior. Players can earn points by killing or destroying.

reward

86

Use of the computer, like tv viewing, has the capacity to decrease the time ____ spend interacting with each other.

family members

87

_____ and child sexual abuse are found in all cultures and across all socioeconomic classes.

child abuse

88

Child ____ is failure to protect children from harm or failure to meet their biological and medical need.

neglect

89

Studies of child mistreatment have found a link between ______ and abuse.

temperament

90

The difficult temperament is the _____ of the three temperaments for caregivers to deal with and perhaps that is why children with this temperament are at greater risk of abuse.

hardest

91

_____ offenders tend to target children who are isolated and needy. Sexual offenders play on these children's vulnerabilities and my gain the trust of children because they are socially isolate and crave _____.

sexual
attention

92

Young infants who are abused or neglected often develop a syndrome called ______.

failure to thrive

93

_____ of child sexual abuse frequently develop post traumatic stress disorder and engage in sexualized behavior.

victims

94

A smaller number of victims of child sexual abuse develop serious _______ disorders, such as multiple personality disorder.

psychological

95

_____ are most often the abuser.

parents

96

Parents who abuse their children tend to have a history of ____ themselves, have little social support, and low self esteem, and are hypersensitive to their children's bad behavior.

abuse

97

Studies have shown that abusers have signficantly higher levels of emotional ____ under stressful conditions compared to non abusers. Intervention programs that focus on social support for these parents tend to be most successful.

arousal

98

Kubler Ross provided the first psychological model of _____ and ____.

death and dying

99

Kubler Ross studied death and dying by conducting in depth interviews with ____.

terminally ill patients

100

The first stage in the death and dying model is _____, when the patient refuses to accept the diagnosis and prognosis of death.

denial

101

A person in ____ might spend a lot of time and money seeking other medical opinions.

denial

102

The 2nd stage of teh dying and death stage theory is _____.

anger

103

After the anger phase, the person enters the stage of ______, trying to delay the inevitable.

bargaining

104

When anger and bargaining don't help a period of _____ ensures.

depression

105

The final stage of Kubler ROss's theory is _____, when patients finally accept their impending death. They may participate in planning their own funeral and put their affairs in order.

acceptance

106

Critics argue that the Kubler Ross stage theory has flaws, and all people do not go through these stages in the same ____, and not all dying patients come to accept their death.

order

107

_____ is the distressful responding to teh death of a loved one.

grief or bereavement

108

Psychologists argue that grief is a process that proceeds through the same stages as in the ______ model of death and dying.

kubler ross

109

_____ also effects how people deal with death and the dying process. Each culture has death and bereavement rituals, attitudes toward death, and expectations for the behavior of those who are bereaved.

culture

110

_____ is grief that begins before the loved one's death. Family members often begin the grief process when they learn that a loved one has a terminal illness.

anticipatory grief

111

______ is actively assisting the death of a terminally ill person who has a very poor quality of life.

euthanasia

112

A ____ is a legal document that outlines the individuals's wishes with regard to end of life care.

living will

113

A ____ is a comprehensive support program for terminally ill patients and their families. The goal of hospice is to help the dying person have a painfree death in a _____ environment, preferably the home, surrounded by their loved ones.

hospice
comfortable