Chapter 10 - Gastrointestinal System Vocabulary Flashcards Preview

AAOS Anatomy and Physiology Vocabulary > Chapter 10 - Gastrointestinal System Vocabulary > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 10 - Gastrointestinal System Vocabulary Deck (63):
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Absorptive cells

Cells that produce digestive enzymes and absorbed digested food

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Adventitia

The muscular layer of the wall of the alimentary canal

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Alimentary canal

The mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus

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Ampulla of vater

Opening in the duodenum into which the common bile duct and pancreatic duct drains

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Anal canal

The short tube at the end of the rectum that contains two circular sphincter (internal and external), which help regulate the passage of stool

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Anus

The distal orifice of the alimentary canal, where stool passes from the body

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Appendicitis

Inflammation of the appendix

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Ascending colon

One of four portions of the colon; it extends upward from the cecum

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Bile

A digestive enzyme produced in the liver and stored in the gallbladder

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Carboxypeptidase

A pancreatic enzyme that digests proteins

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Cecum

The first part of the large intestine, into which the ileum opens.

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Chemical digestion

Digestion of food by enzymes in the stomach and small bowel

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Chief cells

Cells in the stomach mucosa that produce pepsinogen, an important enzyme in the digestion of food

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Cholecystitis

Symptoms from cholelithiasis; also called gallbladder attack

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Cholecystokinin

A hormone produced in the intestine that stimulates the production of pancreatic secretions and gallbladder contractions and inhibits gastric motility

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Cholelithiasis

The presence of gallstones

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Chyme

The name given to the substance that leaves the stomach once food is digested; it is a combination of all the eaten foods with added stomach acids

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Chymotrypsin

A pancreatic enzyme that digests proteins

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Colon

A portion of the gastrointestinal system extending from the small intestine to the rectum that maintains water balance by absorbing and excreting water; also called large intestine.

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Colonoscope

A fiberoptic scope used in the visual examination of the colon

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Crypts

Tubular glands located in the colon, which contain many mucus-producing goblet cells

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Cystic ducts

The route through which the gallbladder releases bile

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Descending colon

One of the four portions of the colon; it extends from the splenic flexure to the sigmoid colon

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Diaphragm

Large dome-shaped muscle used for respiration that represents the boundary between the abdominal and the thoracic cavities

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Digestion

The mechanical and chemical breakdown of foods and the absorption of resulting nutrients by body's cells.

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Digestive system

The body system that carries out the process of mechanical and chemical digestion; also called the gastrointestinal system

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Disaccharidases

Enzymes that break down sugars

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Diverticuli

Weakened area (outpouchings) in the walls of the colon

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Diverticulitis

Inflammation of the diverticuli

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Duodenojejunal flexure

The sharp bend in the small intestine between duodenum and the Jejunum

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Duodenum

The first of three secretions of the small intestine; it extends posterior from the stomach and forms a 180° arch within the retroperitoneal portion of the abdomen

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Endocrine cells

Cells in the stomach mucosa that produce regulatory hormones

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Esophageal hiatus

An opening in the diaphragm through which the esophagus passes

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Esophageal sphincters

To muscular rings (upper and lower) that regulate the movement of material into and out of the esophagus

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Esophagus

A collapsible tube that extends from the pharynx to the stomach; contractions of the muscle in the wall of the esophagus propel foods and liquid through it to the stomach

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Flatus

Gas within the colon

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Fundus

The bottom of a hollow organ. In the stomach, it is a portion that balloons superior to the cardiac portion to act as a temporary storage area

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Gallbladder

A sac like organ located on the lower surface of the liver that acts as a reservoir for bile

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Gallstones

Rigid stones formed by digestive enzyme within the gallbladder

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Gastric inhibitory peptides

A hormone that inhibits both gastric secretion and motility

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Gastric pits

Numerous pits in the stomach mucosa; also called invagination

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Gastrin

A hormone produced by the endocrine cells of the stomach that increase stomach secretions as well as the rate of gastric emptying

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Gastritis

Irritation of the stomach often caused by overproduction of stomach acid by the parietal cells

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Gastrointestinal (G.I.) system

System composed of structures and organs involved in the consumption, digestion, and elimination of food; also called the digestive system or gastrointestinal tract

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Goblet cells

Cells that produce a protective mucous lining

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Haustra

Recesses in the colon caused by contractions of the teniae coli

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Heartburn

Sensation often caused by the backflow of stomach acid into the esophagus; also called reflux esophagitis

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Hemorrhoidal plexus

Large veins that line the inside of the anal canal

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Hemorrhoids

Abnormal dilation of veins in the hemorrhoidal plexus

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Hepatic flexure

The first turn (sharp left near the inferior boarder of the liver) in the large intestine at the end of the ascending colon and beginning of tranverse colon

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Hepatoportal system

Specialized portion of the circulatory system that directs blood from stomach and intestine through the liver for processing

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Hiatal hernia

A weakening in the esophageal hiatus that allows the stomach to move above the diaphragm and may result in acid reflux, causing heartburn

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Hydrochloric acid

An acid produced by parietal cells in the stomach that aids in digestion

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Ileocecal junction

The junction between the ileum and large intestine

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Intrinsic factors

The chemical substance produced by the parietal cells in the stomach that is important in absorption of vitamin B12

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Invagination

Numerous pits in the stomach mucosa; also called gastric pits

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Jejunum

The middle portion of the small intestine; it has thicker walls and more folds than the other portions of the small intestine

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Lacteal

A capillary and lymph channel contained in each villus

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Large intestine

A portion of the gastrointestinal system that extends from the small intestine to the rectum and maintains water balance by absorbing and excreting water; also called colon.

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Lipases

Pancreatic enzymes that break down fat

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Liver

A large abdominal organ that lies in the right upper quadrant immediately below the diaphragm; it produces bile, stores glucose for immediate use by the body, and produces many substances that help regulate immune response

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Lumen

The opening of a vessel

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Mastication

Chewing