Chapter 10 Muscle Tissue Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 10 Muscle Tissue Deck (290):
1

What connects Muscle to Bone?

Tendons

2

Muscle attaches to bone the same way that bone attaches to bone, a continuous periosteum.
true or false?

true

3

What is the deepest, inner most element of the muscle diagram that we drew in class of all the cylinders, that does not have a fibrous layer surrounding it?

Myofibrils

4

What part of the muscle tissue connects with the periosteum of the bone?

Epimysium

5

What is the layer of dense irregular connective tissue that surrounds each individual Muscle cell/Muscle Fiber?
(meaning within the muscle)

Endomysium

6

The Perimysium surrounds bundles of 10-100 muscle cells. What is the bundle of muscle cells called?

Fascicle

7

Can the number of myofibrils be manipulated and increased which would cause the whole muscle fiber to be bigger?

yes

8

What can form to replace dead muscle tissue?

Scar Tissue

9

The number of muscle cells found in a fascicle will not change, the number is ___________ _____________.

genetically predetermined

10

What is the Epimysium made of?

dense fibrous connective tissue

11

Which can increase in number, myofibrils or muscle cells?

myofibrils can
muscle cells cannot increase in numbers

12

Is Skeletal Muscle Involuntary?

No

13

Name the specific muscle tissue that is multi-nucleated and striated.

Skeletal Muscle

14

What type of Muscle Tissue generates it's own contractions?

Cardiac Muscle Tissue

15

Name the 2 cell junctions associated with the intercalated discs of Cardiac Muscle

Desmosomes and Gap Junctions

16

What type of Muscle Tissue sometimes has 2 nuclei but is normally uni-nucleated?

Cardiac Muscle Tissue

17

What type of Muscle Tissue is non-striated and involuntary?

Smooth Muscle Tissue

18

Does all Skeletal Muscle require us thinking about it in order for it to work?

no, not all but most

19

What type of Muscle tissue is cylindrically shaped?

Skeletal Muscle Tissue

20

Is Smooth muscle voluntary or involuntary movement?

involuntary

21

What are muscles primarily made up of?

protein

22

Muscle Tissue is able to receive Nerve Impulses and respond to them with what?

Muscle Action Potential (AP)

23

What is an Action potential (AP)?

an electrical impulse

24

Do Satellite cells come in direct contact or indirect contact with Muscle fiber?

direct contact

25

If there is a "pothole" in muscle fiber, what comes in to fuse with muscle fiber to repair?

satellite cells

26

If there is far too much damage to a muscle cell and the satelite cell cannot repair, what happens to the damaged/dead muscle tissue?

It is replaced with scar tissue

27

What is the name of the structure that "invaginates" the sarcolemma?

Transverse Tubules

28

Muscle Action Potential travels down Transverse tubules to the ____________ _________, and tells it to release Ca+2

Sarcoplasmic Reticulum

29

How much more calcium is found in the SR then anywhere else inside or outside of the cell?

10,000x more

30

Is more calcium found inside of a cell or outside of a cell?

outside

31

How does calcium go from an area of high concentration to an area of low?

it diffuses if the gate is open

32

What is the area of the SR that is found closest to the sides of the transverse tubule?

Terminal Cisterna

33

What is the Zone of Overlap?

where the thick and thin filaments overlap

34

What is the bodies largest protein?

Titin

35

What determines the force of contraction of a muscle?

degree of overlap
(zone of overlap)

36

The length of the _ Band never changes

A Band

37

When does the H Zone change?

With relaxation and contraction

38

What does the A Band represent?

The length of the thick filaments

39

What does the I Band represent?

The thin filaments and z disc

40

Does the I Band change in length depending on the muscle relaxing and contracting?

yes

41

What protein is associated with the z discs?

a-actinin

42

Does Muscle encircle the openings of the digestive and urinary tracts giving voluntary control over swallowing, defacation and urination?

yes

43

As Metabolic activity increases, there is more generation of ____.

heat

44

Does muscle store Amino Acids as an energy reserve?

yes
protein

45

What property of muscle tissue is unique to muscle tissue?

Contractility_ ability to shorten or lengthen when stimulated

46

Name the muscle property that allows you to recoil and go back to resting length (normal position) after being stretched.

Elasticity

47

Other than Muscle Fiber/cells, what 3 things are also present in Skeletal Muscle?

Blood Vessels
Nerve Fibers
C.T.

48

Muscle is highly vascularized. Each Muscle Fiber is in close contact with 1 or more ___________.

capillaries

49

Name the 3 connective tissue Sheaths found in muscle.

1. Epimysium
2. Perimysium
3. Endomysium

50

Which of the 3 connective tissue sheaths is found "within the muscle"?

Endomysium
(endo- within)

51

Which of the 3 connective tissue sheaths is found surrounding muscle fiber bundles called fascicles?

Perimysium

52

Which if the 3 connective tissue sheaths is considered the "overcoat" that separates muscle from surrounding tissues and organs?

Epimysium

53

Which of the 3 connective tissue sheaths is made mostly of reticular fibers?

Endomysium

54

What does the Endomysium surround?

The muscle cell

55

Where is the Sarcoplasm found?

In between the myofibrils

56

What is a direct fleshy attachment?

When the epimysium is fused with the periosteum of bone or the perichondrium of cartilage

57

Name the 2 indirect attachments of muscle

Tendons
Aponeurosis

58

Which of the indirect attachments of muscle is "rope-like"?

tendons

59

Which of the indirect attachments of muscle is "sheet-like"?

Aponeurosis

60

What are both indirect attachments of muscle composed of?

Dense Fibrous C.T.

61

All 3 of what come together and extend beyond the muscle to form the indirect attachments, Tendons and Aponeurosis

All 3 Connective tissue Sheaths

62

When talking about attachments to muscle, what word means attachment of a muscle on a stationary bone?

Origin

63

When talking about attachments to muscle, what is the word used to describe the attachment of a muscle on a bone that moves?

Insertion

64

Skeletal muscle works in pairs when moving a particular body part.
true or false?

true

65

What is another name for the Agonist?

Prime mover

66

If the Agonist is the "shortening" part, what is the "lengthening"part?

Antagonist

67

Which part enables the movement, the Agonist or Antagonist?

Agonist

68

What is the primary muscle that opposes movement, the Agonist or Antagonist?

Antagonist

69

What is the group of muscles that help the Agonist/prime mover called?

Synergistic

70

Which type of Attachment is the Temporalis major an example of, a direct (fleshy Attachment) or an indirect attachment?

Direct

71

When you flex your bicep, the bicep is the _______ and the tricep is the antagonist (it lengthens)

agonist

72

When you extend your bicep, the bicep is the antagonist (lengthening) and your ______ is the agonist (shortening)

tricep

73

Can a skeletal muscle fiber (cell) be very long, up to 12 inches?

yes

74

A skeletal muscle is multi-nucleated, name the specific type of cells that develop skeletal muscle through fusion

myoblasts (stem cells)

75

What happens to myoblasts (stem cells) that don't end up fusing to create skeletal muscle fibers?

they remain there to be used for tissue repair

76

Are there only a few nuclei found in skeletal muscle or hundreds that contain genes that control production of enzymes and structural proteins?

hundreds for production of enzymes and structural proteins

77

What are satellite cells (found in skeletal muscle)?

a type of muscle stem cell involved in repairing damaged muscle

78

What type of immature cells are myoblasts derived from before they begin the fusing process to create Mature Skeletal Muscle Fiber?

Embryonic mesoderm cells

79

What are the four steps from first to last when watching the development of a mature skeletal muscle cell/fiber?

* Embryonic mesoderm cell
* Myoblasts (begin fusing)
* Myotube (immature multi-nucleate muscle fiber)
* Mature Skeletal Muscle fiber

80

What is considered the Plasma Membrane of skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle cells?

Sarcolemma

81

What is considered the Cytoplasm of Muscle Fiber/cells?

Sarcoplasm

82

What is a glycosome?

a protein-glycogen complex
(also an organelle)

83

What 2 things are found in the Sarcoplasm?

* Glycogen Granules (glycosomes)
* myoglobin

84

When you hear -globin you should think _______.

protein

85

Name the part of the sarcolemma that penetrates into the cytoplasm (sarcoplasm) of muscle fiber and encircles the myofibril

transverse (T) Tubules

86

What part of the muscle fiber conducts and transmits the muscle action potential deep into the sarcoplasm?

transverse (T) tubules

87

Do the transverse (T) Tubules contain extracellular fluid?

yes

88

What is the name for the bulbous, enlarged area of the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum?
( part of the triad)

terminal cisternae

89

What is the combination of the 2 terminal cisternae and the transverse (t) Tubules called?

triad

90

What comes down along the Sarcolemma that causes Calcium Channels to open in the terminal cisterne/sarcoplasmic Reticulum?

action potential (AP)

91

When Calcium Channels open in the SR, what happens?

it enables calcium (Ca2+) to move from the SR into Cytoplasm and the intercellular Ca2+ concentration increases

92

What is a myofibril?

contractile organelle

93

Where are myofibrils found?

densely packed into muscle fiber

94

Since myofibrils are contractile organelles, what are they responsible for with skeletal muscle?

contraction

95

What contractile elements are myofibril containing?

myofilaments

96

Name the 3 types of myofilaments

* thick myofilament
* thin myofilament
* Elastic myofilament

97

What is the name of the thick myofilaments?

Myosin

98

Name the 4 types of Thin myofilaments (all proteins)

* Actin
* Troponin
* Tropomyosin
* Nebulin

99

What is the name for the Elastic myofilament
(hint: bodies largest protein)

Titin

100

The Sarcoplasmic Reticulum is which type of ER, smooth or rough?

smooth

101

The Sarcoplasmic Reticulum (SR) is the site of _______ ___ storage.

Calcium Ion (Ca2+)

102

What makes up nearly half of your bodies mass?

Muscle Tissue

103

Can Muscle Tissue transform ATP into direct mechanical energy?

yes

104

What type of Muscle tissue makes up the walls of blood vessels, ducts and hollow organs?

smooth muscle tissue

105

What 3 things make up the Troponin complex?
(drawing in class)

* TnT
* TnC
* TnI

106

What part of the Troponin complex is in contact with the tropomyosin?

TnT

107

What fuses with the periosteum of bone?

epimysium

108

Which of the 4 thin filaments is blocking the myosin binding site?

Tropomyosin

109

What happens to the Tropomyosin and the entire structure of troponin when calcium binds to TnC?

It moves, shifts, opening up the myosin binding site

110

Which of the 4 thin myofilaments anchors the 2 G-actin together?

Nebulin

111

Where would you find the myosin binding site?

on G-actin

112

Name the 2 binding sites found on the head of Myosin

* Actin Binding site
* ATP Binding site

113

What part of myosin binds to the myosin binding site on G-actin?

the head of myosin

114

What part of the muscle fiber is made up of repeating units of thick and thin filaments and is also the smallest contractile unit?

Sarcomere

115

What area of the myofibrils would you find the Sarcomere?

Z disc to Z disc

116

Which are the dark thick filaments, A bands or I bands?

A bands

117

Which are the light, thin filaments of the Sarcomere, A bands or I bands?

I bands

118

Sarcomere are the smallest functional unit of the muscle fiber.
true or false?

true

119

Name the Structural protein that forms the M line, binds to titin and connects adjacent thick filaments to eachother.

Myomesin

120

Name the structural protein that helps anchor myofibril to the cell.
(hint: muscular dystrophy)

Dystrophin

121

Name the structural protein that makes up the Z disc and attaches actin to titin.

a-Actinin

122

What makes up F-actin?
(Filamentous Actin)
(example 1 pearl and 1 pearl necklace)

Two twisted rows of G-actin (Globular actin)
G-actin strung together

123

Which of the 4 thin filament proteins helps stiffen the F-actin?

Tropomyosin

124

What binds the tropomyosin to G-actin and is controlled by calcium ions?

Troponin

125

List the 3 components of the Myosin molecule

* Head
* Tail
* Hinge

126

What does the tail of myosin do?

binds to other myosin molecules

127

What does the head of myosin do?

reaches the nearest thin filament

128

Which binding site is found at the top of the head of myosin, Actin-binding site or ATP-binding site?

Actin-binding site

129

What does the Hinge of the Myosin allow it to do?

Hinge allows the head to move

130

What position is the myosin head in when it's in it's "high energy state" or "cocked"?

Head up

131

Which position of the myosin head represents potential energy, head up "cocked" or head down in it's low-energy state?

head up

132

ATP must be hydrolyzed (broken down) by what enzyme found at the binding site?

ATPase

133

When ATPase hydrolyzes (breaks down) the ATP, what is left?

ADP+ Pi (inorganic phosphate) + energy

134

What must happen to ATP to put the myosin head back into "cocked" position?

It must be Hydrolyzed

135

When does ATP bind to the head of myosin, when it's in it's "high-energy state" or it's "low-energy state"?

low-energy state

136

What happens if there isn't any calcium there to bind with the TnC?

The tropomyosin will continue blocking the myosin binding site and myosin will not be able to be bind

137

When is the Sarcomere at it's greatest length?

when relaxed

138

Define Cross-Bridges

when the head of myosin interacts with thin filaments
(G-actin) during a muscle contraction

139

What is it called when the head of myosin goes from high-energy to low-energy?

Powerstroke

140

When Myosin cross-bridges rotate toward center of sarcomere, what is this called?

powerstroke

141

What has to happen for the ATP to come off and then bind to the ATP binding site of myosin?

powerstroke

142

As myosin heads and ATP binds, the cross-bridges detach from what?

actin

143

When does powerstroke occur?

upon cross-bridge formation

144

The muscle contraction cycle can only continue as long as ATP is available and Ca2+ level in the __________ is high

sarcoplasm

145

Once the myosin head detaches from Actin, what does it do to start the cycle again?

the head recocks

146

If a fast twitch= ATPase hydrolyzes quickly, then slow twitch= ATPase hydrolyzes ______.

slowly

147

What is the neuromuscular junction?

Where the nerve cell and muscle cell meet

148

You need ATP for your muscles to relax, if you don't have any ATP, your muscles will _______.

stiffen

149

How many motor neurons can one muscule fiber be controlled by?

1 motor neuron

150

Can 1 motor neuron control only one muscle fiber?

no, 1 motor neuron can control any number of muscle fibers

151

Without Ca2+ bound to TnC, the Contraction cycle cannot take place.
true or false?

true

152

Ca2+ comes from the SR into the sarcoplasm and travels to ___________ _____.

contraction cycle

153

What are the Terminal Cisternae part of?

Sarcoplasmic Reticulum (SR)

154

What is the name for the gap found in the neuromuscular junction between the synaptic knob of the axon and the Motor End Plate of the muscle fiber?

Synaptic cleft

155

What does Synapse mean?

cell-to-cell contact
(junction)

156

What system tells skeletal muscle to contract?

Central Nervous System

157

What is another name for the Neuromuscular Junction?

Myoneural Junction
(muscle + nerve)

158

1 Somatic Motor Neuron+ all the muscle fibers it controls =

1 Motor Unit

159

During a contraction, the A band stays the same width, but the Z lines move ______ ________, and the I band gets _______.

closer together
smaller

160

Is the Sarcomere at it's greatest length when relaxed or when contracted?

relaxed

161

Is there an H Zone when muscle is relaxed?

yes

162

Is there an H Zone when muscle is FULLY contracted?

no

163

Does the length of the A band change?

no

164

What happens to the H Zone when a muscle is PARTIALLY contracted?

it gets smaller

165

what hydrolyzes ATP?

ATPase

166

What happens first in the Contraction Cycle?

The myosin head hydrolyzes ATP and becomes energized

167

What happens after ATP is hydrolyzed in the Contraction cycle (what happens 2nd)?

Myosin head binds to Actin forming crossbridges

168

What happens 3rd in the Contraction Cycle?

myosin head rotates toward center, powerstroke, release ATP

169

What happens 4th (last) in the Contraction Cycle?

Myosin Head and ATP Bind, crossbridge detaches from Actin

170

What has to happen to ATP in the Contraction Cycle for the Myosin Head to "cock"?

ATP hydrolyzes

171

What is Acetylcholine (ACh)?

a neurotransmitter

172

Name the enzyme that destroys/breaks down Acetylcholine (ACh)

Achetylcholinesterase (AChE)

173

Where is the enzyme AChE found?

in the synaptic cleft and Motor end plate

174

A Neuromuscular Junction is a intercellular connection between a _______ _____ ______ and a skeletal muscle fiber.

Somatic Motor Neuron

175

When ATP is hydrolyzed, what does it breakdown into (what does it become)?

ADP + Pi + Energy
(inorganic phosphate)

176

What system tells skeletal muscle to contract?

Central Nervous System (CNS)

177

What direction does the AP move when associated with axons?

away (Efferent)

178

Are dendrites the receiving end?

yes (input, afferent)

179

What is the Terminal Cisternae part of?

Sarcoplasmic Reticulum (SR)

180

Give 2 names for the very end of the axon.

Synaptic Knob
Synaptic End Bulb
Synaptic Terminal

181

What is the name of the channels that opens when the AP (action potential) arrives at the synaptic knob?

Voltage-gated Ca2+ channels

182

Once the Voltage-gated Ca2+ channels open (when AP arrives at synaptic knob), exocytosis of what occurs?

Acetylcholine (ACh)
a Neurotransmitter (NT)

183

After ACh binds to the ACh receptors on the motor end plate, what type of channels are then triggered to open?

Ligand Na+ (sodium) channels
(sodium Ion channels)

184

What do you call the action potential that is associated with dendrites and the soma (cell body)?

graded potential

185

Where is there more Na+, extracellularly or intracellularly?

extracellularly (outside of cell)

186

What happens to the ACh once it binds to the ACh receptor on the motor end plate?

the AChE (acetylcholinesterase) breaks it apart

187

If there wasn't any AChE, the ACh would remain bound to the receptor and the muscle could not do what?

relax

188

After ACh binds to the ACh receptors on the motor end plate, Ligand channels (sodium ion channels) open and this leads to the production of action potential in the __________.

sarcolemma

189

The Action potential in the Sarcolemma travels along the _ _______ to the triads, where it onsets the release of calcium ions from the terminal cisternae of the SR

T tubules

190

Pump= what type of transport?

Active Transport

191

Does Active Transport require energy?

yes ATP required

192

Once the Troponin-Tropomyosin complex slides back into position where it blocks the myosin-binding site, what can the muscle now do?

muscle can relax

193

Once the Contraction cycle is shut down, does the muscle immediately relax or does it take time?

it takes time because the left over calcium needs to be pumped back into SR from the sarcoplasm

194

In order for a muscle to have relaxation, the Ca2+ concentrations in the sarcoplasm must fall and Ca2+ must detach from what?

troponin (TnC)

195

When you die your Ion Pumps cease to function because you run out of ATP, and calcium builds up in the sarcoplasm. A stiffening of skeletal muscle occurs, what is this called?

Rigor Mortis

196

When your muscles contract and both ends of the muscle fiber are free, the ends of the muscle fiber move in which direction?

toward the center of muscle fiber

197

After contraction, opposing muscles help pull the _________ back to it's relaxed state

sarcomere

198

When one end of a myofibril is fixed in position and the other end is free to move, when contracted, which way does the free end pull toward?

toward the fixed end

199

1 motor neuron is the same as 1 _______ motor neuron

Somatic

200

What indicates how fine and precise the control of movement will be in muscle?

It is dependent on how many muscle fibers are being controlled by the 1 (sensory) motor neuron

201

Which type of Motor unit will have a more fine and precise control of muscle movement, a small motor unit or a large motor unit?

a small motor unit
(a low amount of muscle fibers/motor neuron)

202

What type of Motor Unit controls the larynx the eyes or the hands?

small motor unit

203

Which type of motor unit generates ATP easily and is easily excitable?

small motor unit

204

Perfect amount of cross-bridges=Perfect Zone __ _______

zone of overlap

205

When a muscle fiber is "On", it's producing tension, it's ___________

contracting
(On=contracting)

206

When a muscle fiber is "Off", it's not producing tension, it's ________.

relaxing
(Off= relax)

207

What is the name for a single stimulus-contraction-relaxation sequence in a muscle fiber?

Twitch

208

Name the 3 Phases/Periods of a Twitch

1. Latent Period
2. Contraction Period
3. Relaxation Period

209

Does every muscle have all 3 of the twitch phases?

yes

210

In which of the 3 twitch phases does the cross-bridging and power stroke occur?

Contraction Period #2

211

In the Relaxation Period of a twitch, the Action Potential (AP) has ceased.
true or false?

true

212

A myogram shows differences in tension over time for a twitch in different skeletal muscles.
true or false?

true

213

When talking about the Twitches associated with muscle contraction, which type of twitching pattern is a "stair-step" where a twitch goes from stimulation to complete relaxation before the next twitch begins and the tension in tetanus slowly increases each time?
(first in power points)

Treppe
(the first one)

214

What is the name for the pattern of twitching where the frequency is increasing, relaxation period is shorter. The muscle does not relax completely before the next twitch begins, progressively increasing tension in tetanus?

Wave Summation

215

What is the name for Unfused Tetany, dealing with twitches, where the muscle does not relax completely, periods of relaxation are very brief and the tension rises and then reaches a peak?
(third one in power points)

Incomplete Tetanus

216

Once the Stimulus frequency is so high and there is enough AP sent, the muscle will fully contract (no relaxation phase) and tension plateaus at max level (loss of the waves). What twitch pattern is this?

Complete Tetanus (Fused Tetany)

217

If Stimuli are high-frequency, a sustained contraction called ______ occurs

Tetany

218

Recruitment is the recruiting of more Somatic Motor Neurons to increase the voltage (strength) of a stimulus.
true or false?

true

219

How does Multiple Motor Unit Summation take place
(slowly increasing the size or number of motor units stimulated)

Recruitment

220

Which type of motor unit tends to be activated first, small or large?

small motor units
(they are highly excitable)

221

What do they call it when all of the muscle fibers contract simultaneously because all the Somatic Motor Neurons fired at the same time and gas out at the same time?
(hint: Summation)

Synchronous Motor Unit Summation

222

During sustained contraction, some motor units are contracting while others are resting. (relay team)
What is this called?
(opposite of Synchronous Motor Unit Summation)

Asynchronous Motor Unit Summation

223

What do we call the normal tension and firmness of a muscle at rest (resting tension)?

Muscle Tone

224

Muscle that's in a semi-state of contraction is ______ ____.

Muscle Tone

225

Increasing muscle tone increases _________ energy used.

metabolic

226

What does Iso- mean?
What does metric mean?

same
length

227

List the 2 main categories of contraction (based on pattern of tension produced)

* Isotonic Contraction
* Isometric Contraction

228

Which contraction category means "equal tension"
(muscle length changes and results in motion, shortens or lengthens)

Isotonic Contraction

229

There are 2 types of Isotonic Contractions, one shortens and ones lengthens. Name them

* Concentric Isotonic Contraction (shortens)
* Eccentric Isotonic Contraction (lengthens)

230

With which of the 2 Isotonic Contraction types, is there always a load associated with it?

Concentric Isotonic Contraction
(hint: lifting dumbells, muscle shortens)

231

Which type of Isotonic Contraction exerts precise control over the amount of tension and causes more protein breakdown to build stronger muscle?

Eccentric Isotonic Contraction

232

Isometric Contraction has no movement of the load at all, (although cross-bridges are still there).
true or false

true

233

In Isotonic Contraction, the load moves because muscle either _________ or ________.

lengthens or shortens

234

Which of the 2 Isotonic Contractions is considered the "typical" contraction, where the Z Discs are brought closer together?

Concentric Isotonic Contraction

235

Which type of Contraction means "same measure", where the muscle as a whole does not shorten or change length and results in no motion?

Isometric Contraction

236

In which type of Contraction are the thin filaments sliding?

Isotonic Contractions

237

In which type of contraction are the cross-bridges generating force but are not moving the thin filaments?
(ex: pushing against a wall)

Isometric Contractions

238

What provides the energy for muscle contraction?

ATP

239

ATP is stored in muscle in the form of CP during rest. What is CP

Creatine Phosphate (CP)

240

Does muscle store a large amount or a very limited amount of ATP?

limited amount ( 4-6 seconds worth)

241

Can we generate ATP from Creatine Phosphate (CP), the high energy molecule stored in muscles?

yes

242

Do muscle cells store more CP or ATP?

much more CP (creatine phosphate)

243

Where is creatine kinase found?

in muscle

244

What are the 3 pathways that produce ATP?

1. Direct Phosphorylation
2. Anaerobic Metabolism
3. Aerobic Metabolism

245

What is involved in Anaerobic Metabolism?

Glycolysis and Lactic Acid Fermentation (no oxygen)

246

Which of the 3 pathways is good for sustainable energy and generates a lot of ATP?

Aerobic Metabolism

247

Which pathway is good for energy needed quickly? (like a sprint) (no O2)

Anaerobic Metabolism

248

Which of the 3 pathways gives you about 15 seconds worth of energy? (just enough to get going)

Direct Phosphorylation

249

Which pathway is associated with the Krebs cycle?

Aerobic Metabolism

250

What is the name for the point at which muscle metabolism converts to anaerobic metabolism ?

Anaerobic Threshold

251

During Aerobic Metabolism, can oxygen be retrieved from hemoglobin in blood or from myoglobin in muscle fibers?

yes

252

How many minutes of energy can you get from Anaerobic Metabolism?

2 minutes

253

Is Oxygen needed for Aerobic Metabolism?

yes

254

During a short duration exercise, which source of ATP is used first?

ATP stored in muscles

255

During a short duration exercise, in order, name the three places the body gets ATP (energy) from.

1st: ATP stored in muscle
2nd: Direct phosphorylation (ATP formed from CP and ADP
3rd: Anaerobic pathway (glycogen stored in muscles is broken down to glucose, then oxidized to generate ATP

256

If you are going to be running for hours and need sustained energy, where would you get that?

Aerobic Pathway
(ATP generated by breakdown of nutrient energy fuels)

257

Can a build up of Lactic acid (low pH) cause muscle fatigue?

yes

258

What Cycle is used for Lactic Acid removal and recycling?

The Cori Cycle

259

Which major Organ is involved in The Cori Cycle?

Liver

260

What is the shorter way to say Excess Post Exercise Oxygen Consumption (EPOC)

Oxygen Debt
( need of extra O2 after workout to normalize metabolic activities)

261

Can up to 70% of muscle energy be lost as heat, raising the bodies temp?

yes

262

What two words (feelings) sum up what it is to have Central fatigue or psychological fatigue?

Exhaustion and Pain

263

Name the three Metabolic reserves used for energy for muscles

* CP (creatine phosphate)
* Glycogen
* Triglycerides

264

In Muscle performance, what is the word for the maximum amount of tension produced?
(zone of overlap and cross-bridge)

Force

265

What is the word for the amount of time an activity can be sustained?

Endurance

266

ATP Reserves are essential in improving your _________.

Endurance

267

List the 3 Major types of Skeletal Muscle

1. Fast Glycolytic (FG) Fibers
2. Fast Oxidative-Glycolytic (FOG) Fibers
3. Slow Oxidative (SO) Fibers

268

Which of the 3 skeletal Muscle Fibers is quick to hydrolyze ATP?

Fast Glycolytic (FG) Fibers

269

What type of pathway would the Fast Glycolytic Fibers use?

Anaerobic (glycolysis/Lactic Acid)

270

Which of the 3 major muscle fibers can do both Anaerobic and Aerobic ?

FOG
Fast Oxidative-Glycolytic Fibers (Fast-Twitch Oxidative)

271

Which of the 3 major muscle fibers would give the most endurance and be the most sustainable (Aerobic only)?

SO
Slow Oxidative Fibers (slow-twitch oxidative)

272

What type of major muscle fibers make up about 80% of the muscle fibers found in Marathon Runners?

SO

273

Can one muscle fiber type transition to another muscle fiber type?

yes

274

Which muscle fiber type contracts and fatigues very quickly, has low myoglobin, few mitochondria, and is pale in color?

FG
Fast Glycolytic Fibers (Anaerobic Glycolysis)

275

Which type of muscle fiber has low glycogen reserves, many mitochondria, high myoglobin content, and is Red in color?

SO
Slow Oxidative Fibers (slow-twitch oxidative)

276

Which type of muscle fiber can contract quickly but is more fatigue resistant, intermediate glycogen reserves, many mitochondria, high myoglobin, pink in color?

FOG
(Fast-Twitch Oxidative)

277

Which Muscle Fiber is quickest to hydrolyze ATP?

FG

278

Which of the 3 muscle fiber types would hydrolyze ATP the slowest?

SO

279

What type of muscle fibers do body builders have?

equal concentration of all 3

280

What would you call muscle growth from heavy training?
(another example is when your heart gets bigger when you workout)

Muscle Hypertrophy
(increase in size)

281

What is the opposite of muscle hypertrophy?
This is caused by lack of muscle activity, a reduction in muscle size, tone, and power

Muscle Atrophy

282

Which fatal Muscle Disorder/disease is caused by a mutation of the DMD gene (on X Chromosome) which leads to the inability to produce Dystrophin?

Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

283

Name the chronic Muscle disorder/disease that causes widespread (all over body) musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, and localized tenderness?

Fibromyalgia

284

Name the Muscular disease that causes muscle weakness from reduction of ACh receptors. It's characterized by drooping of upper eyelids, difficulty swallowing and talking

Myasthenia Gravis

285

What filaments are the myosin head part of?

thick filaments

286

Recruitment of Motor Neurons depends on the amount of contraction required to do something.
true or false?

true

287

You cannot manipulate or increase the force of AP, but you can increase the _________, the amount of AP sent out

frequency

288

Do we need to ingest creatine phosphate to have the ample amount?

no, our bodies make it as long as we have ample sources of protein.

289

If you massage lactic acid out of an achy muscle, where does it go?

back into the blood stream

290

In Eukaryotes, Aerobic Metabolism takes place in the ____________

Mitochondria