Chapter 10 - Sensory Physiology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 10 - Sensory Physiology Deck (57):
1

In muscles, tendon, joints & provide a sense of body position also allowing fine muscle control

Proprioceptors

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Touch, pressure, heart, cold, pain

Cutaneous skin receptors

3

Vision, hearing, taste, smell, equilibrium

Special senses

4

Origin of info

Exteroceptors

Interoceptors

5

Respond to stimuli from outside the body; includes skin receptors and special senses

Exteroceptors

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Respond to internal stimuli; found in organs; monitor blood pressure, pH, & oxygen concentrations

Interoceptors

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Burst of activity when stimulus 1st applied : adapt (fast)

Phasic

Eg smell- perfume; touch

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Keep high firing rate as long as stimulus is applied (slow)

Tonic

Eg pain

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Law of Specific Nerve Energies

Each type of sensory receptor primarily responds to 1 type of stimulus - normal stimulus

Eg photoreceptors- light
& punch in eye(pressure) flash of light

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Stimuli produce depolarizations called

Generator potentials

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Light touch on skin pacifism corpuscle =

Small generator potential

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High pressure, high magnitude of generator potential until threshold =

Met then action potential occurs

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Pacinian corpuscles =

Phasic receptors

Adapt; generator potential decrease

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Generator potential = proportional to intensity of stimulus

Tonic receptors

Increased intensity= high frequency of action potential after reaching threshold

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Cold receptors

Respond more to COLD than hot

Stimulated by cold, inhibited by warm

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Warm receptors

Excited by warming, inhibited by cooling

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Hot receptors

Pain experienced by a HOT stimulus sensors by a special nociceptor called capsaicin receptor

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Types of info being delivered to brain

Proprioceptors

Cutaneous Receptors

Special Senses

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Nociceptors can be

Myelinated - transmits sudden sharp pain

Unmyelinated - transmit dull persistent pain

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Nociceptors may be activated by

Chemicals released by damaged tissues

Eg ATP, pH change or mechanical stimuli

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Emotional response

Info sent from thalamus to anterior cingulate gyrus

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Referred pain (sometimes pain info)

Can synapse on same inter neuron as neuron carding visceral

Brain may interpret heart pain as arm pain or gallbladder pain as back pain

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Receptive field

Area of skin that when stimulated changes the firing rate of a neuron

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Smaller receptor field =

Greater tactile acuity - sharpness of sensation

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Two point touch threshold

Measure tactile acuity

Important in spacing the raised dots in Braille symbols

26

Lateral Inhibitation

Reducing the input from the edges
(Touch of blunt object, input of edges are reduced, & receptors in center are stimulated more & sharpens the sensation)

27

Vestibular Apparatus

Located in inner ear

Provides a sense of equilibrium

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Vestibular Apparatus consists of

Otolith organs - utricle & saccule detect linear acceleration

Semicircular Canals - rotational acceleration

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Utricle & Saccule

Provide information about linear acceleration

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Utricle

Horizontal

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Saccule

Vertical

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Macula

Specialized epithelium that houses hair cells

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Otoliths

Ear stones

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Stereocilia

Modified epithelial cells with 20-50 hairlike extensions

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If hair bent to right

May increase action potentials

36

Equilibrium bent opposite

Will decrease action potential

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Semicircular Canals

Project along 3 different planes to detect rotation

Rotation makes endolymph circulate pushing the callus and bending the hair cells

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Each canal contains a semicircular duct filled with

Endolymph

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An enlarged area at the base of each duct called

Ampulla

40

When persons body is spinning, eye movements are

Toward opposite directions of the spin to maintain a fixation point

41

When body comes to a stop, the capula is

Bent by fluid inertia & eye movements are still affected

42

Nystagmus

Jerky eye movement produced

43

Vertigo

Nystagmus can cause a loss of equilibrium

44

Sound waves characterized by

Frequency measured in hertz (Hz)
Higher frequencies have higher pitches
Human range 20-20,000 Hz

Intensity(loudness) measured in decibels
Human optimal range is 0-80dB

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Cochlea

Hearing part of inner ear

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3 chambers of cochlea

Upper- scala vestibuli

Lower - scala thympani

Also contains the membranous labyrinth called scala media (filled with endolymph)

47

Vibrations from oral window of middle ear displace Perilymp in scala vestibuli

(1) in how sound transmission occur

48

Vibrations pass through vestibular membrane into the Cochlear duct through endolymph

(2) in how sound transmission occurs

49

Vibrations pass through basilar membrane into perilymph of scala tympani

(3) how sound transmission occur

50

A higher pitched sound is

Going to cause short waves and that bends hairs at beginning of canal

51

A lower pitched sound is

Going to cause larger waves and that bend hairs toward end of canal

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How hearing works

Sound waves enter scala media, tectorial membrane vibrates, bending Stereocilia

53

Conduction deafness

Sound waves are not conducted from the outer to inner ear

Impairs hearing of all sound frequencies

54

Sensorineural / perceptive deafness

Nerve impulses are not conducted from the Cochlea to the auditory cortex

Due to damaged hair cells from loud noises, or
Only impair hearing of particular sound frequencies & not others, or
Be helped by cochlear implants

55

Presbycusis

Age related hearing impairment

High pitched tends to go first

56

Tasted buds

Located in bumps on tongue called papillae

57

5 categories of taste

Salty(basic)
Sour(acid)
Sweet(sugar)
Umami/meaty(savory, MSG)
Bitter(toxic)