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What is the consensus perspective and what are two theories associated with it?

societies maintain a state of equilibrium; maintenance of society is a common interest of members; laws a codification of values; Functionalism and Strain Theory


What is the conflict perspective, what do they focus on?

laws reflect the interest of groups that create and enforce the laws; focus on divisions because of social inequality


What is Strain Theory?

people feel strain when exposed to cultural goals they are unable to meet because they don't have access to approved means of achieving them


What book did Durkheim write and what was a popular idea that sprung from it?

The Division of Labor in Society; and the idea of normlessness of anomie that arise during periods of rapid change when social cohesion is reduced


What is Durkheim's definition of anomie?

an absence of clear societal norms and values;


What is Merton's definition of anomie?

it is more narrow and it is that people adopt deviant means to achieve goals beyond their means; focus on the idea that self-interest trumps legitimate means


What is the concept of micro-anomie?

more value is placed on self-interest than collective values by individuals


What is the central idea to institutional anomie? Who are the main proponents?

it is that economy dominates all things in society; Messner and Rosenfeld


What are the 5 features of strain that make it more likely to affect individuals?

1) High in magnitude
2) Unjust
3) Linked to low social control
4) How much crime pays off
5) With more contact?


What is the idea of Opportunity Structure? Who proposed it?

that opportunity is shaped by the way society is organized or structured; anomie shifted to relative deprivation idea; proposed by Merton


What is Richard Cloward's perspective on Opportunity Structures?

that people will commit crime based on what is available


What are the 3 types of groups that juveniles commit crimes in?

1) Criminal: as a way of attaining goals
2) Conflict: as a means of status
3) Retreatist: drug use/giving up


What are John Braithwaite's propositions to reducing crime?

increase heterogeneity of neighbourhoods (more diversity) because it all depends on the types of opportunities


What does the Sociological Imagination try to do?

establish a link between individual biography and society


What is the idea of the Duality of Structure? Who came up with it?

it is the idea that social structure has 2 parts: the structure itself and human agency; Anthony Kieding


What are the 5 ways of adjusting to disjunction of goals and means? What do they depend on?

1) Conformity
2) Ritualism
3) Innovation
4) Retreatism
5) Rebellion
they depend on whether the people taking part approve of cultural goals and if they have the means to achieve them


Describe Sol Korbin's ideas of the 3 areas of the city and how they relate to crime

1) Stable slum: long lasting, both illegitimate and legitimate means
2) Transitory slum: not many legitimate means
3) Suburbia: mostly legitimate means


Describe Cohen's idea regarding crime

that kids try to live up to a middle class measuring rod and because lower classes cannot they cherish other norms