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Flashcards in Chapter 10 Terms Deck (48):
1

A biochemical pathway used by methanogens to fix CO2. It's also used by acetogens to generate acetic acid.

Acetyl-CoA pathway

2

A small protein that carries the growing fatty acid chain during synthesis.

Acyl carrier protein (ACP)

3

A purine derivative, 6-aminopurine, fround in nucleosides, nucleotides, coenzymes, and nucleic acids.

Adenine

4

Reactions that replenish depleted tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates.

Anaplerotic reactions

5

Reduction of nitrate to to ammonia. Energy is not generated.

Assimilatory nitrate reduction

6

Sulfate reduction involves sulfate activation through the formation of phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate followied by reduction of the sulfate. Sulfate is first reduced to sulfite and then to hydrogen sulfide.

Assimilatory sulfate reduction

7

Enzymes that partially digest peptidoglycan in growing bacteria so that the peptidoglycan can be enlarged.

Autolysins

8

Is a 55 carbon alcohol and is linked to NAM by a pyrophosphate group. Used in synthesis of peptidogylcan.

Bactoprenol

9

The main pathway for the fixation (or reduction and incorporation) of CO2 into organic material by photoautotrophs; its also is found in chemolithoautotrophs.

Calvin cycyle

10

Polyhedral inclusion bodies that contain the CO2 fixation enzyme ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase; found in cyanobacteria, nitrifying bacteria, and thiobaccilli.

Carboxysomes

11

Pathways that play a central role in metabolism and are often referred to as ________ _________ _________.

Central metabolic pathways

12

A pyrimidine 2-oxy-4aminopyrimidine foubnd in nucleosides, nucleotides, and nucleic acids.

Cytosine

13

Takes place when sulfate acts as an electron acceptor during anaerobic respiration.

Dissimilatory sulfate reduction

14

Monocarboxylic acids with long alkyl chains that usually have an even number of carbons.

Fatty acid

15

The multienzyme complex that makes fatty acids; the product usually is palmitic acid.

Fatty acid synthase

16

The synthesis of glucose from noncarbohydrate precursors such as lactate and amino acids.

Gluconeogenesis

17

Catalyzes the formation of glutamate from alpha-ketoglutarate when the ammonia concentration is high.

Glutamate dehydrogenase

18

Catalyzes the amide nitrogen of glutamine transformation to alpha-ketoglutarate to generate a new glutamate molecule.

Glutamate synthase

19

Catalyzes synthesis of glutamine from glutamate where ammonia levels are low.

Glutamine synthetase

20

It functions when ammonia levels are low. It's observed in E. coli, Bacillus megaterium, and other bacteria.

Glutamine synthetase-glutamate synthase (GS-GOGAT) system

21

A modified tricarboxylic acid cycle in which the decarboxylation reactions are bypassed by the enzymes isocitrate lyase and malate synthase; it's used to convert acetyl-CoA to succinate and other metabolites.

Glyoxylate cycle

22

A purine derivative, 2-amino-6-oxopurine, found in nucleosides, nucleotides, and nucleic acids.

Guanine

23

A few archaeal genera and the green nonsulfur bacteria use this to fix CO2.

3-hydroxypropionate cycle

24

The resulting intermediate during peptidoglycan synthesis following NAM-pentapeptide transfer to a second carrier, bactoprenol phosphate.

Lipid I

25

Is generated from the transfer of NAG by UDP to the bactoprenol-NAM-pentapeptide complex (Lipid I)

Lipid II

26

A large molecule that is a polymer of smaller units joined together.

Macromolecule

27

Complex molecules from a few simple structural units.

Monomers

28

An enzyme that contains both FAD and molybdenum. It reduces nitrate to nitrite.

Nitrate reductase

29

Reduces nitrite to ammonia with a series of 2 electron additions.

Nitrite reductase

30

The enzyme that catalyzes biological nitrogen fixation.

Nitrogenase

31

The metabolic process in which atmospheric molecular nitrogen (N2) is reduced to ammonia; carried out by Rhizobium, and other nitrogen-fixing procaryotes.

Nitrogen fixation

32

A combination of ribose or deoxyribose with a purine or pyrimidine base.

Nucleoside

33

A combination of ribose or deoxyribose with phosphate and a purine or pyrimidine base; a nucleoside plus one or more phosphates.

Nucleotide

34

An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolytic removal of phosphate from molecules.

Phosphatase

35

Consists of a glycerol backbone, with, in general, a saturated fatty acid bonded to carbon-1, an unsaturated fatty acid bonded to carbon-2, and a phosphate group bonded to carbon-3.

Phosphatidic acid

36

Are carbon skeletons used as the starting substrates for the synthesis of macromoleculs. They are molecules that lack functional moieties such as amino and sulfhydryl groups.

Precursor metabolites

37

A basic, heterocyclic, nitrogen-containing molecule with 2 joined rings that occurs in nucleic acids and other ell constituents; most are oxy or amino derivative of the purine skeleton. The most important ones are adenine and guanine.

Purine

38

A basic, heterocyclic, nitrogen-containing molecule with one ring that occurs in nucleic acids and other cell constituents; they are oxy or amino derivatives of the pyrimidine skeleton. The most important ones are cytosine, thymine, and uracil.

Pyrimidine

39

Is used by some chemolithoautotrophs and anoxygenic phototrophs such as Chlorobium, a green sulfur bacterium. It runs in the reverse direction of the normal, oxidaive TCA cycle.

Reductive TCA cycle

40

The enzyme that catalyzes the incorporation of CO2 in the Calvin cycle.

Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase

41

The spontaneous formation of a complex structure from its component molecules without the aid of special enzymes or factors.

Self-assembly

42

The pyrimidine 5-methyluracil that is found in nucleosides, nucleotides, and DNA.

Thymine

43

Possess the coenzyme pyridoxal phosphate, which is responsible for the amino group transfer during transamination.

Transaminases

44

1. The reaction that forms the peptide cross-links during peptidoglycan synthesis. 2. The reaction that forms a peptide bond during the elongation cycle of protein synthesis.

Transpeptidation

45

Glycerol esterified to three fatty acids.

Triacylglycerol

46

Non-growing cells that continuously degrade and re-synthesize cellular molecules during this process.

Turnover

47

The pyrimidine 2,4-dioxypyrimidine, which is found in nucleosides, nucleotides, and RNA.

Uracil

48

A nucleoside diphosphate sugar important in synthesis of monosaccharides.

Uridine diphosphate glucose (UDPG)