Chapter 10: Vocabulary Flashcards Preview

Medical Terminology > Chapter 10: Vocabulary > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 10: Vocabulary Deck (51):
1

acetylcholine

neurotransmitter chemical released at the ends of nerve cells

2

afferent nerve

carries messages toward the brain and spinal cord (sensory nerve).

3

arachnoid membrane

middle layer of the three membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord.

4

astrocyte

type of glial cell that transports water and salts from capillaries

5

autonomic nervous system

nerves that control involuntary body functions of muscles, glands, and internal organs

6

axon

microscopic fiber that carries the nervous impulse along a nerve cell

7

blood-brain barrier

protective separation between the blood and brain cells. this makes it difficult for substances to penetrate capillary walls and enter the brain

8

brainstem

posterior portion of the brain that connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord; includes the pons and medulla oblongata

9

cauda equina

collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord

10

cell body

part of a nerve cell that contains the nucleus

11

central nervous system

the brain and the spinal cord

12

cerebellum

posterior part of the brain that coordinates muscle movements and maintains balance

13

cerebral cortex

outer region of the cerebrum, containing sheets of nerve cells; gray matter of the brain

14

cerebrospinal fluid

circulates throughout the brain and spinal cord

15

cerebrum

largest part of the brain; responsible for voluntary muscular activity, vision, speech, taste, hearing, thought, and memory

16

cranial nerves

twelve pairs of nerves that carry messages to and from the brain with regard to the head and neck

17

dendrite

microscopic branching fiber of a nerve cell that is the first part to receive the nervous impulse

18

dura mater

thick, outermost layer of the meninges surrounding and protecting the brain and spinal cord

19

efferent nerve

carries messages away from the brain and spinal cord; motor nerve

20

ependymal cell

glial cell that lines membranes within the brain and spinal cord and helps form cerebrospinal fluid

21

ganglion
plural: ganglia

collection of nerve cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system

22

glial cell
neuroglial cell

supportive and connective nerve cell that does not carry nervous impulses
astrocytes, microglial cells, ependymal cell, oligodendrocytes
can reproduce themselves as opposed to neurons

23

gyrus
plural: gyri

sheet of nerve cells that produces a rounded ridge on the surface of the cerebral cortex; convolution

24

hypothalamus

portion of the brain beneath the thalamus; controls sleep, appetite, body temperature, and secretions from the pituitary gland

25

medulla oblongata

part of the brain just above the spinal cord; controls breathing, heartbeat, and the size of blood vessels; nerve fibers cross over here

26

meninges

three protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord

27

microglial cell

phagocytic glial cell that removes waste products from the central nervous system

28

motor nerve

caries messages away from the brain and spinal cord to muscles and organs; efferent nerve

29

myelin sheath

covering of white fatty tissue that surrounds and insulates the axon of a nerve cell. myelin speeds impulse conduction along axons

30

nerve

macroscopic cord-like collection of fibers that carry electrical impulses

31

neuron

nerve cell that carries impulses throughout the body; parenchyma of the nervous system

32

neurotransmitter

chemical messenger released at the end of a nerve cell. it stimulates or inhibits another cell which can be a nerve cell, muscle cell or gland cell
neurotransmitters are acetylcholine, norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin

33

oligodendroglial cell
oligodendrocyte

glial cell that forms the myelin sheath covering axons.

34

parasympathetic nerves

involuntary, automatic nerves that regulate normal body functions such as heart rate, breathing, and muscles of the gastrointestinal tract

35

parenchyma

essential, distinguishing tissue of any organ or system

36

peripheral nervous system

nerves outside the brain and spinal cord: cranial, spinal, and autonomic nerves

37

pia mater

thin, delicate inner membrane of the meninges

38

plexus
plural: plexuses

large, interlacing netword of nerves.
lumbosacral, cervical, and brachial

39

pons

part of the brain anterior to the cerebrum and between the medulla and the rest of the midbrain

40

receptor

organ that receives a nervous stimulus and passes it on to afferent nerves
skin, ears, eyes, and taste buds are receptors

41

sciatic nerve

nerve extending from the base of the spine down the thigh, lower leg, and foot. Sciatica is pain or inflammation along the course of the nerve

42

sensory nerve

carries messages toward the brain and spinal cord from a receptor; afferent nerve

43

spinal nerves

Thirty-one pairs of nerves arising from the spinal cord

44

stimulus
plural: stimuli

agent of change (light, sound, touch) in the internal or external environment that evokes a response

45

stroma

connective and supporting tissue of an organ. glial cells are the stromal tissue of the brain

46

sulcus
plural: sulci

depression or groove in the surface of the cerebral cortex; fissure

47

sympathetic nerves

autonomic nerves that influence bodily functions involuntarily in times of stress

48

synapse

space through which a nervous impulse travels between nerve cells or between nerve and muscle or glandular cells

49

thalamus

main relay center of the brain.

50

vagus nerve

tenth cranial nerve

51

ventricles of the brain

canals in the brain that contain cerebrospinal fluid

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