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Flashcards in Chapter 11 Deck (16):
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Instinct theory

A view that explains human behavior as motivated by automatic, involuntary, and unlearned responses.

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Drive-reduction theory

A theory stating that much motivation arises from constant imbalances in homeostasis.

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Need

A biological requirement for well-being that is created by an imbalance in homeostasis.

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Drive

A psychological state of arousal created by an imbalance in homeostasis that prompts an organism to take action to restore the balance and reduce the drive.

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Primary drives

Drives that arise from basic biological needs.

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Secondary drives

Stimuli that acquire the motivational properties of primary drives through classical conditioning or other learning mechanisms.

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Arousal theories

Theories stating that people are motivated to behave in ways that maintain what is, for them, an optimal level of arousal.

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Incentive theory

A theory of motivation stating that behavior is directed toward attaining desirable stimuli and avoiding unwanted stimuli.

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Obesity

BMI>30

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Anorexia nervosa

An eating disorder characterized by self-starvation and dramatic weight loss.

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Bulimia nervosa

An eating disorder that involves eating massive amounts of food and then eliminating the food by self-induced vomiting or the use of strong laxatives.

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Sex hormones

Female: estrogen+progestin
Male: androgen

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Need achievement

A motive influenced by the degree to which a person establishes goals, cares about meeting those goals, and experiences feelings of satisfaction by doing so.

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Subjective well-being

A combination of a cognitive judgement of satisfaction with life, the frequent experiencing of positive moods and emotions, and the relatively infrequent experiencing of unpleasant moods and emotions.

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Attribution

The process of explaining the cause of an event.

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Transferred excitation

The process if carrying over arousal from one experience to an independent situation.