chapter 11 Flashcards Preview

psychology > chapter 11 > Flashcards

Flashcards in chapter 11 Deck (30):
1

Freud’s theory

conscious, preconscious, unconscious

2

Conscious

the thoughts, feelings, sensations, or memories of which a person is aware at any given moment

3

Preconscious

the thoughts, feelings and memories that a person is not consciously aware of at the moment but that may be easily brought to consciousness

4

Unconscious

for Freud, the primary motivating force of human behavior, containing repressed memories as well as instincts, wishes, and desires that have never been conscious

5

three systems in Freud’s theory

id
ego
superego

6

id

the unconscious system of personality, which contains the life and death instincts and operates on the pleasure principles

7

ego

in Freud's theory, the logical, rational, largely conscious system of personality, which operates according to the reality principle

8

superego

the moral system of the personality, which consist of the conscience and the ego ideal

9

Ego defense mechanisms

rationalization, reaction formation, projection, repression

10

Rationalization

supplying a logical, rational, or socially acceptable reason rather than the real reason for an action or event

11

Reaction formation

expressing exaggerated ideas and emotions that are the opposite of disturbing, unconscious impulses and desires
Projection- attributing one's own undesirable traits, thoughts, behavior, or impulses to another

12

Repression

involuntary removing and unpleasant memory, thought, or perception from consciousness or barring disturbing sexual and aggressive impulses from consciousness

13

Freud’s five psychosexual stages of development

1. Oral (birth-1 year)- weaning oral gratification from sucking, eating, biting
2. Anal (1-3 years)- toilet raining gratification from expelling and without holding feces
3. Phallic (3- 5/6 years)- oedipal conflict sexual curiosity masturbation
4. Latency (5/6 years- puberty)- period of sexual calm interest in school, hobbies, same-sex friends
5. Genital (puberty- on)- revival of sexual interest establishment of mature sexual relationships

14

Oedipus complex and
Elektra complex

occuring in the ohallic stage, a conflict which the child is sexually attracted to the opposite sex parent and feels hostility towards the same sex parent

15

Neo-Freudians

• Alfred Adler- positive and conscious goals; compensation; inferiority; social
• Karen Horney- environmental/social factors (culture); childhood relationships

16

humanists

View human nature as basically good; stress people's potential for growth:
○ Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs
○ Carl Rodgers' unconditional positive regard; self-esteem

17

self-actualization

Developing to ones fullest potential

18

Rogers’ unconditional positive regard

unqualified caring and non judgmental acceptance of another

19

Rogers' conditions of worth

conditions on which the positive regard of others rest

20

Trait theories

Are personal qualities or characteristics that make it possible for us to face wide variety of situational demands and deal with unforeseen circumstances

21

Gordon Allport's cardinal traits vs. central traits

Cardinal trait- major theme of a person's life
Central trait- general charateristics that a person would include in a description about themselves or another person

22

Raymond Cattell's 16 personality factors; now the "big 5" (canoe)

Cattell's 16 personality factors questionnaire

23

Hans Eyseneck's 3 dimensions- psychoticism, extraversion, neuroticism

Psychoticism- continuum that represents an individual's link to reality
Extraversion- ranges from people who are outgoing to those who are shy
Neuroticism- describes emotional stability, with highly stable people at one end and anxious irritable people at the other

24

The “Big Five” factor model

C-conscientiousness, responsible vs. careless
A- agreeableness, friendly vs. cold
N-neuroticism, anxious vs. easy going
O-Openness to experience, curious vs. dull
E-extroversion, outgoing vs. introverted

25

The MMPI

The most extensively researched and widely used personality test, which is used to screen for and diagnose psychiatric problems and disorders

26

observation

he action or process of observing something or someone carefully or in order to gain information

27

behaviorism

the theory that human and animal behavior can be explained in terms of conditioning, without appeal to thoughts or feelings, and that psychological disorders are best treated by altering behavior patterns.

28

structure

questions prearranged

29

unstructured

questions not prepared

30

The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

A personality inventory useful for measuring individuals differences; based on Jung's theory of personality