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Flashcards in Chapter 11 Deck (60):
1

motivation

-concerns the physiological and psychological processes underlying the initiation of behaviors that direct organisms towards specific goals

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drives

-stimulation that our brain generates to push us to address basic biological needs

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homeostasis

-maintain consistent internal states

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allostasis

-process that allows to develop a state of readiness for anticipated future demands on our bio system

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hunger is triggered by

hypothalamus

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satiation

being full, no more eating

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what tells you to stop eating

ventral mediate region of hypothalamus
(lateral- hungry)

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hypothalamus receives info about what

glucose levels based on messages sent by special neurons called glucostats

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glucose

a sugar that serves as a primary energy source for the brain and rest of the body

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what happens when there is a drop in glucose

glucostats send message to hypothalamus

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what happens when our intestines expanded from eating

intestines stimulates neurons to release onolecystokinin

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when hypothalamus detects onolecystokinin

would mean youre full

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bottomless soup

70% more soup is eaten

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unit bias

amount of food received is just the right amount for us to achieve satiation

15

social facilication

when we eat more because of the behavior or expectations of other people

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minimal eating norm

social context that discourage very much eating ex) first date

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this type of (eating) influence on behavior falls under

impression management

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modelling

when behaviors of others during a social event causes us to restrain appetite

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obesity

disorder of positive energy balance, in which energy intake exceeds energy expenditure
20% obesity 60% overweight

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anorexia nervosa

under eating, fear of gaining weight negative views on body image, size, lack of concern of danger

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bulimia nervosa

pattern of resisting eating, then binge and then purging, extreme exercise and laxatives

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reproductive suppression hypothesis

supress menastration = amenorrhea ( not eating = heard to get prego)

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libido

the drive that motivates us to seek out sexual contact

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reasons to have sex

physical reasons, to help attain a goal, emotional reasons, insecurity

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alford kinsey

1938-1952 conducted first scientific investigations into the sexual behavior of american. The kinsey scale: hetrosexual-bisexual-homosexual

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william master + virginia johnson

1950's sex study took notes

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sexual response cycle- 4 stages

1. excitement
2. plateau
3. orgasm
4. resolution

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% of men and women who dont have orgasms

21-32% women
2% men

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refractory period

not possible to have an orgasm for men. women dont need this

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oxytocin

chemical basis for the feeling of attachment trust, and intimacy that is love

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oxytocin is signaled by what

hypothalamus signals pituitary gland to release hormone

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gender roles

accepted attitudes and behaviors of males and females

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sexual scipts

set of rules and assumptions about the sexual behaviors of males and females

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sex guilt

negative emotional feeling for having violated culturally accepted standards of appropriate sexual behavior

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the three trends in a move forward to gender equality

1. support for equal rights
2. increase women in workforce
3. birth control

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abraham maslow

some motivations must take over others

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maslows hierarchy of needs

1. physiological needs: hunger, thirst
2. safety needs: secure, out of danger
3. belongingness: accepted
4. esteem needs: to achieve, be competent
5. cognitive needs: to know, understand
6. aesthetic needs: symmetry, order
7. self actualization: to find self-fullfillment and realize ones potential

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achievement motivation

drive to preform at high levels and to accomplish significant goals

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approach goal

enjoyable and pleasant incentive that a person is down toward, such as praise, financial reward or a feeling of satisfaction

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avoidance goal

an attempt to avoid an unpleasant out-come such as shame, embarrassment, losing money, or emotional pain

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two loves:

companion love, and passionate love

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relatedness

need to feel connected with others

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autonomy

we have control over our own destiny

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competence

ability to development a satisfying level of skill in some area

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extrinsic motivation

motives having to do with direct personal gain for performing an activity

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amotivational

when the threat to our autonomy becomes so great we love motivation to engage some behavior

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intrinsic motivation

having to do with the inherent pleasure one drives from an activity and from improving skill

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over-justification effect

applying extrinstic rewards to a intrinsically enjoyable behavior can cause people to like it less/ do it less

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emotions three components

1. experience or thought
2. pattern of brain activity
3. behavioral expression

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initial response stage:
autonomic
emotional
(emotional regulation)

fight or flight
movement

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amygdala

visual/ auditory that = danger

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parasympathetic/ sympathetic goes with

fight or flight response and sympathetic fights threat

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james lange theory of emotion-

our physiological reactions to stimuli precede the emotional experience

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the canon-bard theory

suggested that the brain interprets a situation and generates subjective emotional feelings, and that these representations in the brain trigger responses in the body

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facial feedback hypothesis

suggest that our emotional expressions can influence our subjective emotional state

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stanley schachter + jerome singer

two factor theory

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microexpression- paul

lies detected based on persons initial facial expression

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paul ekman

facial expression (Charles Darwin)

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emotional dalects

variations across cultures in how common emotions are expressed

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display rules

refer to the unwritten expectations we have regarding when it is appropriate to show a certain emotion