Chapter 11 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 11 Deck (14):
1

prosocial behavior

Any act performed with the goal of benefiting another person

2

altruism

The desire to help another person even if it involves a cost to the helper

3

kin selection

The idea that behaviors that help a genetic relative are favored by natural selection

4

norm of reciprocity

The expectation that helping others will increase the likelihood that they will help us in the future

5

empathy

The ability to put oneself in the shoes of another person and to experience events and emotions (e.g., joy and sadness) the way that person experiences them

6

empathy-altruism hypothesis

The idea that when we feel empathy for a person, we will attempt to help that person for purely altruistic reasons, regardless of what we have to gain

7

social exchange theory

Social exchange suggests that it is the valuing of the ​benefits and costs of each relationship that determine whether or not we choose to continue a social association.

8

altruistic personality

The qualities that cause an individual to help others in a wide variety of situations

9

in-groups

The group with which an individual identifies as a member

10

out-groups

Any group with which an individual does not identify

11

urban overload hypothesis

The theory that people living in cities are constantly bombarded with stimulation and that they keep to themselves to avoid being overwhelmed by it

12

bystander effect

The finding that the greater the number of bystanders who witness an emergency, the less likely any one of them is to help

13

pluralistic ignorance

The case in which people think that everyone else is interpreting a situation in a certain way, when in fact they are not

14

diffusion of responsibility

The phenomenon wherein each bystander’s sense of responsibility to help decreases as the number of witnesses increases