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​1.​Increased levels of progesterone in pregnancy cause relaxation of smooth muscle, which can cause
a.
nausea.
b.
headache.
c.
diarrhea.
d.
constipation.

D

1

​2.​If a woman has had preeclampsia and hypertension in a previous pregnancy, during this pregnancy she should
a.
restrict her sodium intake.
b.
continue her regular sodium intake.
c.
restrict her protein intake.
d.
take iron and calcium supplements.

B

2

​3.​An increase in oxygen needs during pregnancy results in increased
a.
stamina.
b.
blood pressure.
c.
bowel motility.
d.
basal metabolic rate (BMR).

D

3

​4.​The increase in plasma volume during pregnancy may appear to cause
a.
lower plasma levels of sodium.
b.
higher plasma levels of sodium.
c.
lower blood levels of hemoglobin.
d.
higher blood levels of hemoglobin.

C

4

​5.​Intrauterine growth retardation may be caused by
a.
poor weight gain during pregnancy.
b.
gestational diabetes during pregnancy.
c.
excessive weight gain during pregnancy.
d.
excessive use of vitamin and mineral supplements.

A

5

​6.​For a woman with a healthy weight before pregnancy, gaining 25 to 35 pounds during pregnancy is considered to be
a.
too low for a healthy pregnancy.
b.
too high for a healthy pregnancy.
c.
the current recommended range for weight gain.
d.
the current range for weight gain for a woman experiencing gestational diabetes.

C

6

​7.​A weight gain of 15 to 25 pounds during pregnancy is recommended for
a.
a teenage girl.
b.
an overweight woman.
c.
an underweight woman.
d.
all women regardless of weight.

B

7

​8.​Weight gain during pregnancy is a variable that is highly correlated with
a.
zinc status.
b.
bone density.
c.
calcium status.
d.
infant birth weight.

D

8

​9.​A woman needs to increase her kcal intake by about 300 kcals daily during
a.
all three trimesters of pregnancy.
b.
the first and second trimesters of pregnancy.
c.
the second and third trimesters of pregnancy.
d.
the 6 months before conception through the first trimester.

C

9

​10.​A woman who is 4 months pregnant and has already gained 25 pounds should
a.
eat a low-calorie diet to help her lose the extra weight.
b.
modify her food intake if it is excessive but not attempt to lose weight.
c.
take a multivitamin/mineral supplement and consume 1200 kcal a day.
d.
work hard not to gain any more weight during the remainder of the pregnancy.

B

10

​11.​To prevent neural tube defects, the U.S. Public Health Service and the American Academy of Pediatrics now recommend adequate intake of
a.
protein by women of childbearing age.
b.
protein by women in the first trimester of pregnancy.
c.
folic acid by women of childbearing age.
d.
folic acid by women in the first trimester of pregnancy.

C

11

​12.​Vouchers for food are benefits of the
a.
La Leche League.
b.
United States Department of Agriculture Assistance Program.
c.
Special Supplemental Program for Women, Infants, and Children.
d.
U.S. Public Health Service and the American Academy of Pediatrics.

C

12

​13.​The amount of iron needed during pregnancy is
a.
difficult to achieve without taking a supplement.
b.
easy to achieve with a well-balanced diet.
c.
the same as the amount needed by nonpregnant women.
d.
less than for nonpregnant women because there are no menstrual losses.

A

13

​14.​Dietary calcium needs of pregnant women are
a.
higher than for nonpregnant women to form the fetal skeleton.
b.
higher than for nonpregnant women because intestinal absorption decreases.
c.
the same as for nonpregnant women because intestinal absorption increases.
d.
lower than for nonpregnant women because calcium metabolism is more efficient.

C

14

​15.​Teratogens are
a.
additives that may adversely affect the course of a pregnancy.
b.
substances known to cause malformations in the unborn fetus.
c.
hormones known to cause malformations in the unborn fetus.
d.
carcinogens that may increase the risk of cancer in the fetus.

B

15

​16.​To prevent fetal alcohol syndrome, alcohol should be
a.
avoided throughout pregnancy.
b.
avoided in the first trimester of pregnancy.
c.
limited throughout pregnancy.
d.
limited in the first trimester of pregnancy.

A

16

​17.​A drug that appears to be safe when used in moderate amounts during pregnancy is
a.
alcohol.
b.
nicotine.
c.
isotretinoin.
d.
caffeine.

D

17

​18.​Pregnant women who smoke have a high risk of giving birth to an infant with
a.
obesity.
b.
macrosomia.
c.
low birth weight.
d.
average birth weight.

C

18

​19.​During pregnancy, women should
a.
not exercise at all.
b.
exercise for 15 minutes daily.
c.
avoid very strenuous exercise.
d.
take cool showers after exercise sessions.

C

19

​20.​If a woman in her last trimester of pregnancy has marked edema, she may have
a.
heart failure.
b.
dehydration.
c.
preeclampsia.
d.
sodium overload.

C

20

​21.​Recommendations for treatment of gestational diabetes include
a.
weight loss.
b.
dietary control.
c.
avoidance of sugar.
d.
oral diabetes medication.

B

21

​22.​High bioavailability of nutrients and resistance to infection are
a.
known to decrease risk of allergies.
b.
two of the advantages of breastfeeding.
c.
two of the disadvantages of breastfeeding.
d.
advantages that formula preparations are able to mimic.

B

22

​23.​Prolactin is the hormone that
a.
is responsible for milk let-down.
b.
is responsible for milk synthesis.
c.
prepares the body for pregnancy.
d.
is responsible for relaxing muscle tone during pregnancy.

B

23

​24.​Nursing by the infant results in
a.
sustained milk production.
b.
increased body fat in the infant.
c.
increased body fat in the mother.
d.
increased digestibility of breast milk.

A

24

​25.​Excess protein in an infant’s diet is a problem because
a.
it causes edema.
b.
it increases renal solute load.
c.
it results in excessive caloric intake.
d.
the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is too immature to absorb it.

B

25

​26.​Infants may need supplements of
a.
iron, fluoride, and vitamin D.
b.
calcium, magnesium, and vitamin D.
c.
iron, zinc, and vitamin E.
d.
calcium, fluoride, and vitamin E.

A

26

​27.​Vitamin K is the _____-soluble vitamin routinely given to _____.
a.
water; new mothers
b.
fat; new mothers
c.
water; newborns
d.
fat; newborns

D

27

​28.​Infants less than one year old should not be fed
a.
crackers.
b.
egg yolk.
c.
cow’s milk.
d.
fruit juice.

C

28

​29.​To prevent baby bottle tooth decay, infants should not be allowed to sleep with a bottle containing
a.
fruit juice.
b.
beverages sweetened with sugar.
c.
any liquid other than water.
d.
iron-fortified infant formula.

C

29

​30.​Tube feeding is often required by babies born before 34 weeks of gestation because
a.
they are unable to chew.
b.
their taste buds are immature.
c.
they lack a coordinated suck-swallow reflex.
d.
they cannot digest breast milk or infant formula.

C