chapter 11: emotions, aggression, and stress Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in chapter 11: emotions, aggression, and stress Deck (34)
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1

emotion

a subjective mental state that is usually accompanied by distinctive behaviors as well as involuntary physiological changes

2

sympathetic nervous system

the part of the autonomic nervous system that acts as the "fight or flight" system, generally activating the body for action

3

parasympathetic nervous system

the part of the autonomic nervous system that generally prepares the body to relax and recuperate

4

polygraph

recording of multiple physiological measures to detect lying during an interview

5

facial feedback hypothesis

the idea that sensory feedback from our facial expressions can affect our mood

6

evolutionary psychology

a field of study devoted to asking how natural selection has shaped behavior in humans and other animals

7

brain self-stimulation

the process in which animals will work to provide electrical stimulation to particular brain sites, presumably because the experience is very rewarding

8

medial forebrain bundle

a collection of axons traveling in the midline region of the forebrain

9

nucleus accumbens

a region of the forebrain that receives dopaminergic innervation from the ventral segmental area

10

decorticate rage

sudden intense rage characterized by actions that lack clear direction; also called sham rage

11

limbic system

a loosely defined, widespread group of brain nuclei that innervate each other to form a network; implicated in emotions

12

Klüver-Bucy syndrom

a condition, brought about by bilateral amygdala damage, that is characterized by dramatic emotional changes including reduction in fear and anxiety

13

fear conditioning

a form of classical conditioning in which a previously neutral stimulus is repeatedly paired with an unpleasant stimulus until the previously neutral stimulus alone elicits the responses seen in fear

14

amygdala

a group of nuclei in the medial anterior part of the temporal lobe

15

aggression

behavior that is intended to cause pain or harm to others

16

intermale aggression

aggression between males of the same species

17

testosterone

an androgen, produced by the male gonads, that controls a variety of bodily changes that becomes visible at puberty; linked to aggression

18

serotonin

a synaptic transmitter that is produced in the raphe nuclei and is active in structures throughout the central nervous system; inhibits aggression

19

psychopath

an individual incapable of experiencing remorse

20

stress

any circumstance that disrupts homeostatic balance

21

alarm reaction

the initial response to stress

22

adrenal medulla

the inner core of the adrenal gland

23

epinephrine

a compound that acts both as a hormone (secreted by the adrenal medulla under the control of the sympathetic nervous system) and as a synaptic transmitter; also called adrenaline

24

norepinephrine

a neurotransmitter produced and released by the postganglionic neurons to accelerate organ activity; also called noradrenaline

25

adrenal cortex

the outer rind of the adrenal gland

26

adrenal steroid hormone

a steroid hormone that is secreted by the adrenal cortex

27

cortisol

a glucocorticoid stress hormone of the adrenal cortex

28

adaptation stage

the second stage in the stress response, including successful activation of the appropriate response systems and the reestablishment of homeostatic balance

29

exhaustion stage

a stage in the response to stress that is caused by prolonged or frequently repeated stress and is characterized by increased susceptibility to disease

30

stress immunization

the concept that mild stress early in life makes an individual better able to handle stress later in life