Chapter 11 - Excretion Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 11 - Excretion Deck (99):
1

excretion - definition

removal of metabolic wastes produced in the body

2

elimination - definition

removal of indigestible material

3

most of the body's activities produce metabolic wastes that must be

removed

4

aerobic respiration leads to production of

CO2 and H2O

5

deamination of amino acids in the liver leads to production of

nitrogenous wastes - urea; ammonia

6

all metabolic processes lead to production of

mineral salts

7

mineral salts produced by all metabolic processes must be excreted by the

kidneys

8

in phyla: protozoa, cnidarians - all cells are in contact with

external, aqueous environment

9

water soluble waste (ammonia; CO2) can exit cell via

simple diffusion through cell membrane

10

passive excretion

water solube wastes exiting cell via simple diffusion

11

contractile vacuole
(some freshwater protozoa)

organelle specialized for water excretion by active transport

12

cell is able to maintain volume and pressure by

excess water, which continually diffuses into the cell from hypotonic environment (fresh water) is collected and periodically pumped out of cell

13

in annelids (earthworms), carbon dioxide excretion occurs directly through

moist skin

14

nephridia

two pairs in each body segment;
excrete water, mineral salts, nitrogenous wastes in form of urea

15

insects (arthropods) - carbon dioxide is released from _____ into ______

tissue; adjacent tube-like trachaea

16

tube-like trachaea of insects are continuous with external air through openings called

spiracles

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nitrogenous waste excreted in form of

solid uric acid crystals

18

the use of solid nitrogenous wastes is an adaptation for the

conservation of water

19

mineral salts and uric acid accumulate in the

malphigian tubules

20

after accumulating in the malphigian tubules, mineral salts and uric acid are transported to the

intestine

21

once transported to the intestine, the mineral salts and uric acid are

expelled with solid wastes of digestion

22

principal organs of excretion in humans

lungs, liver, skin, kidneys

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excretion in the lungs

CO2 and water vapor diffuse from blood and are continually exhaled

24

excretion in skin

sweat glands excrete:
water
dissolved salts
small quantity of urea

25

perspiration serves to regulate

body temperature

26

evaporation of sweat produces

cooling

27

liver and excretion

processes:
nitrogenous wastes
blood pigment wastes
other chemicals for excretion

28

urea is produced by

deamination of amino acids in the liver

29

once urea is produced, it diffuses into the

blood for excretion in kidneys

30

bile salts and red blood pigments are excreted as ____ and pass out with the _____

bile; feces

31

kidneys function to maintain

osmolarity of the blood

32

in addition to maintaining osmolarity of the blood, kidneys function to

excrete waste products and toxic chemicals
conserve glucose, salt and water

33

the kidneys regulate the concentration of

salt and water in the blood

34

the kidneys regulate concentration of salt and water in the blood through

formation and excretion of urine

35

the kidneys are shaped like

beans

36

the kidneys are located

behind the stomach and liver

37

each kidney is composed of

~1 million units of nephrons

38

the kidney is divided into ____ regions

3

39

the regions of the kidney

outer cortex
inner medulla
renal pelvis

40

nephron - structure

Bowman's capsule
glomerulus
proximal convoluted tubule
loop of Henle
distal convoluted tubule
collecting duct

41

Bowman's capsule

bulb
embraces capillary bed - glomerulus

42

glomerulus

capillary bed

43

Bowman's capsule leads into a

long coiled tubule

44

long coiled tubule following Bowman's capsule is divided into

4 functionally distinct units

45

4 functionally distinct units following Bowman's capsule

proximal convoluted tubule
loop of Henle
distal convoluted tubule
collecting duct

46

loop of Henle runs through

medulla

47

convoluted tubules and bowman's capsule are in the

cortex

48

the collecting tubules serve to transport

concentrated urine

49

from the collecting tubules, the concentrated urine flows into the

pelvis of the kidney

50

pelvis of the kidney
structure, location

funnel-like region
opens directly into ureter

51

ureter from each kidney empty into the

urinary bladder

52

urinary bladder

where urine collects until expelled via the urethra

53

urine is expelled via the

urethra

54

most of the nephron is surrounded by a complex

peritubular capillary network

55

peritubular capillary network

surrounds nephron
facilitates reabsorption of:
amino acids
glucose
salts
water

56

three processes that lead to urine formation

filtration
secretion
reabsorption

57

blood pressure forces 20% of the blood plasma entering the glomerulus through the

capillary walls and into the surrounding Bowmans capsule

58

filtrate

fluid and small solutes entering the nephron

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the filtrate is _____ with the blood plasma

isotonic

60

particles too large to filter through the glomerulus,

e.g. blood cells
albumin

remain in the circulatory system

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filtration is a ____ process

passive

62

filtration is driven by the

hydrostatic pressure of the blood

63

the nephron secretes

acids
bases
ions (potassium, phosphate)

64

nephron secretes substances from the _____ into the _____

interestitial fluid;
filtrate

65

nephron secretes substances from the interstitial fluid into the filtrate via ____ and _____ transport

active and passive

66

materials are secreted from the _____ into the ____

peritubular capillaries;
nephron tubule

67

essential substances examples

glucose
salts
amino acids

68

essential substances and water are _____ from the filtrate and _____

reabsorbed;
returned to the blood

69

reabsorption occurs in the

proximal convoluted tubule

70

reabsorption is an _____ process

active

71

movement of molecules is accompanied by the

passive movement of water

72

movement of the molecules accompanied by the passive movement of water results in the formation of

concentrated urine

73

concentrated urine is _____ to the bood

hypertonic

74

glomerulus is like a collander

small molecules dissolved in the fluid will pass through the glomerulus (e.g. glucose which is later reabsorbed)

large molecules (e.g. proteins and blood cells) will not

75

if blood cells or protein are found in the urine, this is indicates a problem with

levels of glomerulus

76

nephron - function

maintains bloodstream's solute gradient

77

through selective permeability of its walls and the maintenance of an osmolarity gradient, the nephron

reabsorbs nutrients, salts, water from filtrate and returns them to body

78

the selective permeability of the tubules establishes an ______ in the ______

osmolarity gradient;
interstitial fluid

79

by exiting and reentering at different segments of the nephron, solutes create an

osmolarity gradient

80

tissue osmolarity increases from _____ to _____

cortex;
inner medulla

81

solutes that contribute to maintenance of osmolarity gradient

urea
salt (Na+ and Cl-)

82

the osmolarity of urine is determined by

the concentration of dissolved particles

83

the osmolarity of urine is established in the

collecting tubule by means of counter-current-multiplier system

84

counter-current-multiplier system

anatomic arrangement of the loop of Henle within the kidney permits establishment of the concentration gradient that permits the reabsorption of 99% of filtrate in the collecting tubules

85

the anatomic arrangement of the loop of Henle within the kidney permits

concentration gradient

86

the concentration gradient permits

the reabsorption of 99% of the filtrate in the collecting tubules

87

reabsorption of 99% of the filtrate occurs in the

collecting tubules

88

the production of concentrated urine is made possible by

counter-current-multiplier system

89

the counter-current system causes the medium in the medulla of the kidney to be

hyperosmolar

90

the medium in the medulla is hyperosmolar with regards to the

dilute filtrate flowing in the collecting tubule

91

as filtrate flowing in the collecting tubules passes through this region of the kidney, on its way to pelvis and ureter,

water flows out of hte collecting tubules by osmosis

92

water flows out of the collecting tubules by

osmosis

93

water is removed by

capillaries flowing in the medulla

94

reabsorption of water in this zone of the kidney (medulla) depends on the

permeability of the collecting tubules of water

95

the reabsorption of water in the kidney permits

concentration of urine

96

regulation of the permeability of the collecting tubule to water is by

ADH (vasopressin)

97

ADH _____ permeability of the collecting duct to ______

increases;
water

98

ADH increase permeability of collecting duct to water allows

more water to be absorbed and more concentrated urine to be formed

99