Chapter 11 - Excretion Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 11 - Excretion Deck (99)
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1

excretion - definition

removal of metabolic wastes produced in the body

2

elimination - definition

removal of indigestible material

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most of the body's activities produce metabolic wastes that must be

removed

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aerobic respiration leads to production of

CO2 and H2O

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deamination of amino acids in the liver leads to production of

nitrogenous wastes - urea; ammonia

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all metabolic processes lead to production of

mineral salts

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mineral salts produced by all metabolic processes must be excreted by the

kidneys

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in phyla: protozoa, cnidarians - all cells are in contact with

external, aqueous environment

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water soluble waste (ammonia; CO2) can exit cell via

simple diffusion through cell membrane

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passive excretion

water solube wastes exiting cell via simple diffusion

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contractile vacuole
(some freshwater protozoa)

organelle specialized for water excretion by active transport

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cell is able to maintain volume and pressure by

excess water, which continually diffuses into the cell from hypotonic environment (fresh water) is collected and periodically pumped out of cell

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in annelids (earthworms), carbon dioxide excretion occurs directly through

moist skin

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nephridia

two pairs in each body segment;
excrete water, mineral salts, nitrogenous wastes in form of urea

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insects (arthropods) - carbon dioxide is released from _____ into ______

tissue; adjacent tube-like trachaea

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tube-like trachaea of insects are continuous with external air through openings called

spiracles

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nitrogenous waste excreted in form of

solid uric acid crystals

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the use of solid nitrogenous wastes is an adaptation for the

conservation of water

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mineral salts and uric acid accumulate in the

malphigian tubules

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after accumulating in the malphigian tubules, mineral salts and uric acid are transported to the

intestine

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once transported to the intestine, the mineral salts and uric acid are

expelled with solid wastes of digestion

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principal organs of excretion in humans

lungs, liver, skin, kidneys

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excretion in the lungs

CO2 and water vapor diffuse from blood and are continually exhaled

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excretion in skin

sweat glands excrete:
water
dissolved salts
small quantity of urea

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perspiration serves to regulate

body temperature

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evaporation of sweat produces

cooling

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liver and excretion

processes:
nitrogenous wastes
blood pigment wastes
other chemicals for excretion

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urea is produced by

deamination of amino acids in the liver

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once urea is produced, it diffuses into the

blood for excretion in kidneys

30

bile salts and red blood pigments are excreted as ____ and pass out with the _____

bile; feces